Vegetarian Discussion: IT IS A MYTH THAT MEAT IS A GOOD SOURCE OF IRON

IT IS A MYTH THAT MEAT IS A GOOD SOURCE OF IRON
Posts: 7

Report Abuse

Use this form to report abuse or request takedown.
The requests are usually processed within 48 hours.

Page: 1   (First | Last)

And/or Www.mantra.com/jai Dr. Jai Maharaj
2010-08-21 05:36:24 EST
MYTH - Meat is a 'good' source of iron

Forwarded message from Fidyl <fi...@yahoo.com>

[ Subject: Myth: Meat is a "good" source of iron
[ From: Fidyl <fi...@yahoo.com>
[ Date: Wed, 1 Dec 2004

Myth: Meat is a "good" source of iron

http://www.ecologos.org/iron.htm

Myth:

Meat is a "good" source of iron.

The false claim is often made by meat-industry
propagandists that meat is a "good" source of iron.

Original data from USDA #8.

Source Iron content
mg/100g edible

dulse 150
kelp 100
rice bran 19.4
rice polish 16.1
wheat bran 14.9
pumpkin seed 11.2
squash seed 11.2
sesame seed 10.5
wheat germ 9.4
Irish moss 8.9
soybean, dry 8.4
pigeonpea, dry 8.0
white bean, dry 7.8
lima bean, dry 7.8
hot red pepper, dry 7.8
mung bean, dry 7.7
pistacio nut 7.3
sunflower seed 7.1
broadbean, dry 7.1
red bean, dry 6.9
chickpea, dry 6.9
butternut 6.8
lentile, dry 6.8
millet 6.8
pinto bean, dry 6.4
agar 6.3
parsley 6.2
peach, dry 6.0
black walnut 6.0
cowpea, dry 5.8
apricot, dry 5.5
longan, dry 5.4
pinon nut 5.2
pea, dry 5.1
almond 4.7
prune dry 4.4
sorghum grain 4.4
durim wheat 4.3
wild rice 4.2
prune, dry 3.9
cashew nut 3.8
rye grain 3.7
raisin 3.5
purslane 3.5
wheat, soft winter 3.5
Brazilnut 3.4
filbert 3.4
pilinut 3.4
Jerusalem artichoke 3.4
wheat, hard winter 3.4
chestnut, dry 3.3
coconut, dry 3.3
beet greens 3.3
Swiss chard 3.2
English walnut 3.1
dandelion greens 3.1
spinach 3.1
wheat, hard spring 3.1
mustard greens 3.0
white wheat 3.0
dates 3.0
fig, dried 3.0
banana, dried 2.8
tamarind 2.8
Lima bean, fresh 2.8
soybean, fresh 2.8
fennel 2.7
kale leaves 2.7
barley, Scotch pearl 2.7
New Zealand spinach 2.6
persimmon 2.5
swamp cabbage 2.5
sesame seed, hulled 2.4
hickory nut 2.4
pecan 2.4
cow pea, fresh 2.3
kale, leaves/stems 2.2
broadbean, fresh 2.2
peanut 2.1
lettuce, Boston bibb 2.0
Macadamia nut 2.0
BEEF - PRIME GRADE 2.0 <<<<<

So, when we think beyond the propaganda and actually look
at the facts, we can readily determine that yet another
horrendous lie is being propagated by the meat-industry
advertising campaign. Here, 81 common plant-based foods
have more, or the same amount of, iron than beef. Any
kind of vegetarian diet will provide ample iron. Worse
yet, the iron in animal flesh is heme (blood) iron and is
now know to be a risk factor in cancer and cardiovascular
diseases.

- - -

The Heme Iron Problem

Heme (blood) iron, cancer, and cardiovascular disease.

Iron encourages production of free radicals which can
damage DNA and presumably increase cancer risk. In a
study of over 14,000 individuals, high iron intake and
high iron body stores were both positively linked to the
risk of colon cancer. Higher levels of iron were
associated with higher incidence of colon polyps,
possible forerunners of colon tumors. However, cancer
patients themselves had low levels of stored iron,
indicating that cancer itself can deplete iron stores.
[1]

Controversy has surrounded the question as to whether too
much iron in your diet raises your risk for heart
disease. A new study from the Harvard University School
of Public Health brings new insight to the debate.
Lasting for 4 years, this research involved more than
50,000 male health professionals. It was found that
total iron intake was not associated with heart disease
risk. But the source of the iron came was the principle
factor. High levels of heme iron raised risk for heart
disease twofold. Heme iron is the type of iron found in
meat, chicken and fish.

Plant foods contain non-heme iron which appears to not be
associated with risk for heart attack. Traditionally,
many nutritionists used to consider non-heme iron to be
inferior to the iron found in animal products, because
non-heme iron is somewhat less well absorbed. But new
evidence suggests that non-heme iron seems to be
preferable.

When the body is low in iron, it can increase absorption
of non-heme iron, and it can reduce adsorption when it
already has sufficient amounts. The heme iron in meats
tends to pass quickly right through the adsorption
mechanism, thus entering the blood stream whether it is
needed or not. Since vegetarians generally have adequate
iron intake, it is clear that non-heme iron can easily
meet nutritional needs. Also, plant iron doesn't create
the health risks of heme iron.

Iron increases heart disease risks because heme iron acts
as a pro-oxidant, causing LDL-cholesterol -- the 'bad'
cholesterol -- to react with oxygen. This reaction is
involved in the formation of plaques in the arteries and
therefore increases one's risk of cardiovascular
problems. [2]

[1] Nelson, Davis, Suffer, Sobin, Kikeenddl, Bowen. Body
iron stores and risk of colonic neoplasia. J Natl Canc
Inst 1994; 86:455-60

[2] Ascherio, Willett, Rimm, Giovannucci, Stampger.
Dietary iron intake and risk of coronary disease among
men. Circulation 1994; 89:969-74

- - -

Annals of Family Medicine 2:139-144 (2004)

The Mortality Risk of Elevated Serum Transferrin
Saturation and Consumption of Dietary Iron

Arch G. Mainous, III, PhD1, Brian Wells, MD1, Peter J.
Carek, MD, MS1, James M. Gill, MD, MPH2 and Mark E.
Geesey, MS1

1 Department of Family Medicine, Medical University of
South Carolina, Charleston, SC

2 Department of Family & Community Medicine, Christiana
Care Health System, Wilmington, Del

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Arch G. Mainous III, PhD,
Department of Family Medicine, Medical University of
South Carolina, PO Box 250192, 295 Calhoun Street,
Charleston, SC 29425, maino...@musc.edu

BACKGROUND Recent data shows an increased mortality
risk associated with elevated transferrin saturation.
Because ingestion of dietary iron may contribute to iron
overload in persons with elevated transferrin saturation,
we investigated the relationship between elevated
transferrin saturation, ingestion of dietary iron and red
meat, and mortality.

METHODS This 12-year cohort study used data from the
second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
1976-1980 (NHANES II) and the NHANES II Mortality Study
1992. Population estimates were based on 9,229 persons
aged 35 to 70 years at baseline. A Cox proportional
hazards analysis was performed based on levels of
transferrin saturation, intake of dietary iron, and
intake of red meat. The analysis was conducted while
controlling for demographics, severity of illness, body
mass index, and smoking status.

RESULTS Unadjusted analyses indicated that those who
had a high transferrin saturation and reported high
dietary iron or red meat consumption had an increased
mortality risk. The adjusted survival analysis indicated
that persons with elevated transferrin saturation who
reported high dietary iron intake had a hazard ratio for
death of 2.90 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.39-6.04)
compared with those with normal transferrin saturation
levels and reported low dietary iron intake. Persons who
had a high transferrin saturation and reported high red
meat consumption also had an increased hazard ratio for
death (2.26; 95% CI, 1.45-3.52) compared with those who
had normal transferrin saturation and reported low red
meat consumption.

CONCLUSIONS Ingestion of large quantities of dietary
iron and red meat in persons with high transferrin
saturation is associated with an increase in mortality.
Simple dietary restrictions may reduce the mortality risk
associated with high transferrin saturation.

- - -

Eur J Haematol. 2002 Jun; 68(6): 332-40.

Iron status in Danish men 1984-94: a cohort comparison of
changes in iron stores and the prevalence of iron
deficiency and iron overload.

Milman N, Byg KE, Ovesen L, Kirchhoff M, Jurgensen KS.

Department of Medicine B, Rigshospitalet, University of
Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. nils....@dadlnet.dk

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: From 1954 to 1987, flour in
Denmark was fortified with 30 mg carbonyl iron per kg.
This mandatory fortification was abolished in 1987. The
aim of this study was to compare iron status in Danish
men before and after abolition of iron fortification.

METHODS: Iron status (serum ferritin, haemoglobin), was
assessed in population surveys in Copenhagen County
during 1983-84 comprising 1324 Caucasian men (1024 non-
blood-donors, 300 blood donors) and in 1993-94 comprising
1288 Caucasian men (1103 non-blood-donors, 185 donors),
equally distributed in age cohorts of 40, 50, 60 and 70
yr.

RESULTS: In the 1984 survey median serum ferritin
values in the four age cohorts in non-blood-donors were
136, 141, 133 and 111 microg/L, and in the 1994 survey
177, 173, 186 and 148 microg L(-1), respectively. The
difference was significant in all age groups (P<0.001).
There was no significant difference between the two
surveys concerning the prevalence of small iron stores
(ferritin 16-32 micro g L(-1)), depleted iron stores
(ferritin <16 microg L(-1)) or iron-deficiency anaemia
(ferritin <13 microg L(-1) and Hb <5th percentile for
iron-replete men). However, from 1984 to 1994, the
prevalence of iron overload (ferritin >300 microg L(-1))
increased from 11.3% to 18.9% (P<0.0001). During the
study period there was an increase in body mass index
(P<0.0001), alcohol consumption (P<0.03) and use of non-
steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) (P<0.0001), and a
decrease in the use of vitamin-mineral supplements
(P<0.04) and in the prevalence of tobacco smoking
(P<0.0001). In contrast, median ferritin in blood donors
showed a significant fall from 1984 to 1994 (103 vs. 74
micro g L(-1), P<0.02).

CONCLUSION: Abolition of iron fortification reduced the
iron content of the Danish diet by an average of 0.24 mg
MJ(-1), and the median dietary iron intake in men from 17
to 12 mg d(-1). From 1984 to 1994, body iron stores and
the prevalence of iron overload in Danish men increased
significantly, despite the abolition of food iron
fortification. The reason appears to be changes in
dietary habits, with a lower consumption of dairy
products and eggs, which inhibit iron absorption, and a
higher consumption of alcohol, meat, and poultry,
containing haem iron and enhancing iron absorption. The
high prevalence of iron overload in men may constitute a
health risk.

PMID: 12225390

- - -

Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Oct;78(4):782-9.

Milk folate but not milk iron concentrations may be
inadequate for some infants in a rural farming community
in San Mateo, Capulhuac, Mexico.

Villalpando S, Latulippe ME, Rosas G, Irurita MJ,
Picciano MF, O'Connor DL.

Basic Nutrition Division, Instituto Nacional de Salud
Publica, Cuernavaca, Mexico.

BACKGROUND: We were interested in identifying possible
nutritional reasons for growth faltering among breastfed
infants in the rural farming community of San Mateo,
Capulhuac, Mexico (2800 m above sea level).

OBJECTIVE: We examined the prevalence of inadequate
iron and folate status among lactating Otomi women and
determined to what extent their iron and folate nutriture
influenced the milk concentrations of these nutrients.

DESIGN: Lactating women (n = 71) provided blood and
milk samples and dietary information at a mean (+/- SD)
of 22 +/- 13 d postpartum. Blood indexes included
hemoglobin, hematocrit, serum iron, total-iron-binding
capacity, ferritin, transferrin receptor, mean cell
volume, plasma folate, and erythrocyte folate.

RESULTS: Approximately 62% and 58% of the women had
nutritional anemia defined as a hemoglobin concentration
Milk iron content was unrelated to maternal iron status,
and the milk provided more than adequate amounts of iron
to the infants. In contrast, the infants' predicted
folate intake was approximately 45 micro g/d, or 70% of
the current recommended intake.

CONCLUSION: Milk folate concentrations in Otomi women
are low and may not support optimal folate status in all
breastfed infants.

PMID: 14522737

- - -

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2003
Aug;285(2):G354-G359. Epub 2003 Apr 30.

New method to study oxidative damage and antioxidants in
the human small bowel: effects of iron application.

Troost FJ, Saris WH, Haenen GR, Bast A, Brummer RJ. Dept.
of Human Biology, Nutrition and Toxicology Research
Institute Maastricht, Maastricht University, PO Box 616,
6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands (E-mail
f*.@hb.unimaas.nl

Iron may induce oxidative damage to the intestinal
mucosa by its catalyzing role in the formation of highly
reactive hydroxyl radicals. This study aimed to determine
iron-induced oxidative damage provoked by a single
clinical dosage of ferrous sulfate and to elucidate the
antioxidant defense mechanisms in the human small
intestine in vivo. A double-lumen perfusion tube was
positioned orogastrically into a 40-cm segment of the
proximal small intestine in six healthy volunteers (25
+/- 5 yr). The segment was perfused with saline and
subsequently with saline containing 80 mg iron as ferrous
sulfate at a rate of 10 ml/min. Intestinal fluid samples
were collected at 15-min intervals. Thiobarbituric acid
reactive substances concentrations as an indicator of
lipid peroxidation increased significantly from 0.07
microM (range, 0-0.33 microM) during saline perfusion to
3.35 microM (range, 1.19-7.27 microM) during iron
perfusion (P < 0.05). Nonprotein antioxidant capacity
increased significantly from 474 microM (range, 162-748
microM) to 1,314 microM (range, 674-1,542 microM) (P <
0.05). These data show that a single dosage of ferrous
sulfate induces oxidative damage and the subsequent
release of an antioxidant in the small intestine in vivo
in healthy volunteers.

PMID: 12724133

- - -

Journal of the American Dietetic Association, May 2003
v103 i5 p601(1)

Iron fulfillment possible through vegetarian lifestyle.

Damon Brown. Full Text: COPYRIGHT 2003 American Dietetic
Association

Iron status is not an unusual concern for current as
well as potential vegetarians since meat, a strong iron
source, must be replaced by other foods. In the previous
piece researchers Wells, Haub, Fluckey, Williams,
Chernoff, and Campbell compared the iron status of older
men consuming a vegetarian (lacto-ovo) diet to those
consuming a beef diet. The 21 men, aged 59 to 78 years
and having a BMI range of 24 to 33 kg/[m.sup.2], were
observed over 12 weeks while resistive training.

These results suggest that a beef-containing diet may
better maintain or improve hematological indexes during
resistive training," the researchers say, adding that it
"should be noted that the [v]egitarian group's
hematological profile was maintained within normal ranges
and did not decline over time with resistance training
and continued consumption of a meat-free diet."

"That's basically the take home message: vegetarian
diets aren't automatically going to lead to poor iron
status," says Enette Larson-Myer PhD, assistant professor
of Health and Performance Enhancement at Pennington
Biomedical Research Center in Baton Rouge, LA.

However, Larson-Myer says that the research does give a
word of advice for vegetarians. "I think they suggest
that vegetarians need to be a little bit more cautious in
their iron choices or in the foods that they consume
along with their iron sources.

" For example, she says vegetarians should add a glass
of citrus juice or another organic acid during the meal
to facilitate iron absorption and avoid tea or other
drinks that inhibit iron absorption. Larson-Myer, who is
also Director of the Pennington Nutrition and Exercise
Lab, says that "when working with vegetarian athletes,
always urge them to increase a variety of good sources of
iron: cereals, organic acids, legumes... to help insure
that any iron in that meal facilitates absorption.

Reed Mangels PhD, RD, FADA, Nutrition Advisor for the
nonprofit Baltimore, MD-based Vegetarian Resource Group,
found two major points in the results. "One, it would
reassure dietitians that people with vegetarian diets
with adequate iron can maintain a normal hematological
profile. Secondly, that a vegetarian diet may offer some
advantages to older men because of lower fat intake on
this partially self-selecting vegetarian diet group."

For Mangels, whose organization publishes the quarterly
magazine The Vegetarian Journal, it is a comfort to hear
positive results regarding vegetarians and iron.

"As you look at this study, it's interesting how
everything really stayed within the normal range. It's
reassuring," Mangels says. "There's this old myth that
vegetarians don't get enough iron and can't absorb it as
well, and here's this research saying that both
[vegetarian and non-vegetarian] groups are getting the
iron they need."

- - -

J Nutr 2003 May;133(5 Suppl 2):1700S-1708S

Iron and oxidative stress in pregnancy.

Casanueva E, Viteri FE Instituto Nacional de
Perinatologia, Mexico, DF, Mexico.

Pregnancy, mostly because of the mitochondria-rich
placenta, is a condition that favors oxidative stress.
Transitional metals, especially iron, which is
particularly abundant in the placenta, are important in
the production of free radicals. Protective mechanisms
against free radical generation and damage increase
throughout pregnancy and protect the fetus, which,
however, is subjected to a degree of oxidative stress.
Oxidative stress peaks by the second trimester of
pregnancy, ending what appears to be a vulnerable period
for fetal health and gestational progress. Conditions
restricted to pregnancy, such as gestational
hypertension, insulin resistance and diabetes, exhibit
exaggerated indications of free radical damage.
Antioxidants as well as avoidance of iron excess
ameliorate maternal and early fetal damage. In rats both
iron deficiency and excess result in free radical
mitochondrial damage. Estimates of gestational iron
requirements and of the proportion of iron absorbed from
different iron supplemental doses suggest that with
present supplementation schemes the intestinal mucosal
cells are constantly exposed to unabsorbed iron excess
and oxidative stress. Unpublished work carried out in
Mexico City with nonanemic women at midpregnancy
indicates that 60 mg/d of iron increases the risk of
hemoconcentration, low birth weight and premature birth
and produces a progressive decline in plasma copper.
These risks are not observed in women supplemented with
120 mg iron once or twice per week. Studies on the
influence of iron supplementation schemes on oxidative
stress are needed. [Note: the Life Extension Foundation
removed iron from their supplements when information of
this type first became available - ljf.]

PMID: 12730487

- - -

J Am Diet Assoc 2003 May;103(5):594-601

Comparisons of vegetarian and beef-containing diets on
hematological indexes and iron stores during a period of
resistive training in older men.

Wells AM, Haub MD, Fluckey J, Williams DK, Chernoff R,
Campbell WW. General Clinical Research Center, University
of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, USA.

OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that older men who
consumed a vegetarian (lacto-ovo) diet would develop a
lower iron status compared with older men who consumed a
beef-containing diet during a period of resistive
training (RT).

DESIGN: Experimental, repeated measures study.

SUBJECTS: Twenty-one healthy men aged 59 to 78 years,
with a BMI range of 24 to 33 kg/m(2), completed the
study.

INTERVENTION: All men consumed a vegetarian diet for 2
weeks (baseline). After this, the men were randomly
assigned to one of two dietary groups. Eleven men
consumed a beef-containing diet, and 10 men continued to
consume a vegetarian diet for 12 weeks. During this time
all subjects participated in RT three days per week,
designated as RT1 to RT12.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Serum ferritin and serum iron
concentrations, transferrin saturation, transferrin
receptor, total iron binding capacity, and selected
hematological variables, as well as selected nutrient
intakes and estimated iron bioavailability from three-day
diet records, were determined at baseline, RT5, and RT12.


STATISTICAL ANALYSES: A general linear model repeated-
measures ANOVA was used to examine the effects of group,
time, and group x time interactions for iron status and
dietary data.

RESULTS: Total iron intake was not different between
the two groups; however, the beef group had a three to
four times greater intake of bioavailable iron (P<.01)
than the vegetarian group. Serum iron, total iron binding
capacity, transferrin saturation, and transferrin
receptor were not significantly different between the
beef and vegetarian groups, or changed over time with RT.
Serum ferritin decreased over time in both the beef and
vegetarian groups during RT (P<.01). Re-introduction of
beef into the diets of the beef group increased
hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit compared with the
vegetarian group during the 12 weeks of RT (group x time,
P<.05). These changes were within clinically normal
limits.

APPLICATIONS/CONCLUSIONS: Older men who consume a beef-
containing, higher-bioavailable-iron diet, compared with
a vegetarian, lower-bioavailable-iron diet, have an
increased hematological profile during a 12-week period
of RT. Older men who consume either a beef-containing or
a vegetarian diet maintain a hematological profile within
clinically normal limits during 12 weeks of RT.

PMID: 12728219

- - -

J Am Diet Assoc 2003 May;103(5):594-601

Comparisons of vegetarian and beef-containing diets on
hematological indexes and iron stores during a period of
resistive training in older men.

Wells AM, Haub MD, Fluckey J, Williams DK, Chernoff R,
Campbell WW. General Clinical Research Center, University
of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, USA.

OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that older men who
consumed a vegetarian (lacto-ovo) diet would develop a
lower iron status compared with older men who consumed a
beef-containing diet during a period of resistive
training (RT).

DESIGN: Experimental, repeated measures study.

SUBJECTS: Twenty-one healthy men aged 59 to 78 years,
with a BMI range of 24 to 33 kg/m(2), completed the
study.

INTERVENTION: All men consumed a vegetarian diet for 2
weeks (baseline). After this, the men were randomly
assigned to one of two dietary groups. Eleven men
consumed a beef-containing diet, and 10 men continued to
consume a vegetarian diet for 12 weeks. During this time
all subjects participated in RT three days per week,
designated as RT1 to RT12.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Serum ferritin and serum iron
concentrations, transferrin saturation, transferrin
receptor, total iron binding capacity, and selected
hematological variables, as well as selected nutrient
intakes and estimated iron bioavailability from three-day
diet records, were determined at baseline, RT5, and RT12.


STATISTICAL ANALYSES: A general linear model repeated-
measures ANOVA was used to examine the effects of group,
time, and group x time interactions for iron status and
dietary data.

RESULTS: Total iron intake was not different between
the two groups; however, the beef group had a three to
four times greater intake of bioavailable iron (P<.01)
than the vegetarian group. Serum iron, total iron binding
capacity, transferrin saturation, and transferrin
receptor were not significantly different between the
beef and vegetarian groups, or changed over time with RT.
[So where is the effect of the alleged "greater intake of
bioavailable iron"? - ljf] Serum ferritin decreased over
time in both the beef and vegetarian groups during RT
(P<.01). Re-introduction of beef into the diets of the
beef group increased hemoglobin concentration and
hematocrit compared with the vegetarian group during the
12 weeks of RT (group x time, P<.05). These changes were
within clinically normal limits.

APPLICATIONS/CONCLUSIONS: Older men who consume a beef-
containing, higher-bioavailable-iron diet, compared with
a vegetarian, lower-bioavailable-iron diet, have an
increased hematological profile during a 12-week period
of RT. Older men who consume either a beef-containing or
a vegetarian diet maintain a hematological profile within
clinically normal limits during 12 weeks of RT.

PMID: 12728219

- - -

Nutr Rev 2002 May;60(5 Pt 1):127-34

Moving toward a plant-based diet: are iron and zinc at
risk?

Hunt JR. USDA-ARS Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research
Center, ND 58202, USA.

With reduced intake of meat and increased intake of
phytate-containing legumes and whole grains, movement
toward plant-based diets reduces dietary iron and zinc
absorption. Although vegetarians have lower iron stores,
adverse health effects of lower iron and zinc absorption
have not been demonstrated with varied, plant-based diets
consumed in developed countries. Improved assessment
methods and monitoring are needed to detect and prevent
possible iron and zinc deficiency with plant-based diets.


PMID: 12030275

- - -

Am J Clin Nutr 1999 Sep;70(3):353-8

Dietary intake and iron status of Australian vegetarian
women.

Ball MJ, Bartlett MA. School of Nutrition and Public
Health, Deakin University, Burwood, Australia.
m*.@deakin.edu.au

BACKGROUND: Despite the possible overall health
benefits of a vegetarian diet, there is concern that some
vegetarians and infrequent meat eaters, particularly
females, may have inadequate iron status because of low
or no heme-iron intakes.

OBJECTIVE: The objective was to investigate the
nutritional intake and iron status of vegetarian women.

DESIGN: The nutritional intakes of 50 free-living
vegetarian women aged 18-45 y and 24 age-matched
omnivorous control women were assessed by using 12-d
weighed dietary records. Iron status was assessed by
measuring hemoglobin and serum ferritin concentrations.

RESULTS: There was no significant difference between
mean (+/-SD) daily iron intakes of vegetarians and
omnivores (10.7 +/- 4.4 and 9.9 +/- 2.9 mg,
respectively), although heme-iron intakes were low in the
vegetarians. Vegetarians had significantly lower intakes
of protein (P < 0.01), saturated fat (P < 0.01), and
cholesterol (P < 0.001), and significantly higher intakes
of dietary fiber (P < 0.001) and vitamin C (P < 0.05).
Mean serum ferritin concentrations were significantly
lower (P = 0.025) in vegetarians (25.0 +/- 16.2 microg/L)
than in omnivores (45.5 +/- 42.5 microg/L). However,
similar numbers of vegetarians (18%) and omnivores (13%)
had serum ferritin concentrations <12 microg/L, which is
a value often used as an indicator of low iron stores.
Hemoglobin concentrations were not significantly
different.

CONCLUSION: It is important that both vegetarian and
omnivorous women maintain an adequate iron status and
follow dietary practices that enhance iron absorption.

PMID: 10479197

http://www.ecologos.org/iron.htm

End of forwarded message from Fidyl <fi...@yahoo.com>

Jai Maharaj, Jyotishi
Om Shanti

o Not for commercial use. Solely to be fairly used for the educational
purposes of research and open discussion. The contents of this post may not
have been authored by, and do not necessarily represent the opinion of the
poster. The contents are protected by copyright law and the exemption for
fair use of copyrighted works.
o If you send private e-mail to me, it will likely not be read,
considered or answered if it does not contain your full legal name, current
e-mail and postal addresses, and live-voice telephone number.
o Posted for information and discussion. Views expressed by others are
not necessarily those of the poster who may or may not have read the article.

FAIR USE NOTICE: This article may contain copyrighted material the use of
which may or may not have been specifically authorized by the copyright
owner. This material is being made available in efforts to advance the
understanding of environmental, political, human rights, economic,
democratic, scientific, social, and cultural, etc., issues. It is believed
that this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as
provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. In accordance with Title
17 U.S.C. Section 107, the material on this site is distributed without
profit to those who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the included
information for research, comment, discussion and educational purposes by
subscribing to USENET newsgroups or visiting web sites. For more information
go to: http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.shtml
If you wish to use copyrighted material from this article for purposes of
your own that go beyond 'fair use', you must obtain permission from the
copyright owner.

Since newsgroup posts are being removed
by forgery by one or more net terrorists,
this post may be reposted several times.

D*@.
2010-08-22 13:29:24 EST
On Sat, 21 Aug 2010 09:36:24 GMT, usenet@mantra.com and/or
www.mantra.com/jai (Dr. Jai Maharaj) wrote:

>MYTH - Meat is a 'good' source of iron
>
>Forwarded message from Fidyl <fi...@yahoo.com>
. . .
>The false claim is often made by meat-industry
>propagandists that meat is a "good" source of iron.

I've heard that liver is. Do you anti-meat propagandists want
to say that it doesn't, and if so, why?

H*@indero.com
2010-08-23 10:06:43 EST
Cultural reasons to eat it or not, the myth explanation is a myth.

"Myth:

Meat is a "good" source of iron.

The false claim is often made by meat-industry
propagandists that meat is a "good" source of iron.

Original data from USDA #8."

Thereafter follows a chart of iron content by food source.

The reason meat is a good source of iron is that it is in a form very
easy to be absorbed during digestion. The form found in plant sources
is bound in such a way that absorption is a fraction of that of the iron
in meat. This is the case even when some plant sources are higher in
iron.

Low iron levels is a world wide problem among those who for cultural
reasons or reasons of poverty consume mostly a plant diet. This hits
women and children hardest and iron fortification efforts are attempted
to provide what the diet does not.

Funkenstein
2010-08-26 05:48:28 EST
On Aug 23, 4:06 pm, hari.ku...@indero.com wrote:
> Cultural reasons to eat it or not, the myth explanation is a myth.
>
> "Myth:
>
> Meat is a "good" source of iron.
>
> The false claim is often made by meat-industry
> propagandists that meat is a "good" source of iron.
>
> Original data from USDA #8."
>
> Thereafter follows a chart of iron content by food source.
>
> The reason meat is a good source of iron is that it is in a form very
> easy to be absorbed during digestion.  The form found in plant sources
> is bound in such a way that absorption is a fraction of that of the iron
> in meat.  This is the case even when some plant sources are higher in
> iron.
>

This is news to me. To make minerals more absorbable they are often
chelated, a chemical process that is done by plants. Many advertise
plant-based minerals as the most absorbable.

> Low iron levels is a world wide problem among those who for cultural
> reasons or reasons of poverty consume mostly a plant diet.  This hits
> women and children hardest and iron fortification efforts are attempted
> to provide what the diet does not.

http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/mor_iro_def_ana-mortality-iron-deficiency-anaemia

David Harris
2010-09-06 17:18:44 EST
On 2010-08-21 10:36:24 +0100, usenet@mantra.com and/or
www.mantra.com/jai (Dr. Jai Maharaj) said:

AND SHOUTING MAKES IT SO CONVINCING!!!!


And/or Www.mantra.com/jai Dr. Jai Maharaj
2010-09-06 20:44:09 EST
In article <2010090622184416807-@news-europe.giganews.com>,
David Harris posted:
>
> AND SHOUTING MAKES IT SO CONVINCING!!!!

Only to those who judge a book only by its cover.

Two previous posts below:

1. IT IS A MYTH THAT MEAT IS A GOOD SOURCE OF IRON
2. IRON CONTENT OF COMMON FOODS in milligrams per 100 calories


[ Subject: IT IS A MYTH THAT MEAT IS A GOOD SOURCE OF IRON
[ From: Dr. Jai Maharaj
[ Date: Sat, 21 Aug 2010

MYTH - Meat is a 'good' source of iron

Forwarded message from Fidyl <fi...@yahoo.com>

[ Subject: Myth: Meat is a "good" source of iron
[ From: Fidyl <fi...@yahoo.com>
[ Date: Wed, 1 Dec 2004

Myth: Meat is a "good" source of iron

http://www.ecologos.org/iron.htm

Myth:

Meat is a "good" source of iron.

The false claim is often made by meat-industry
propagandists that meat is a "good" source of iron.

Original data from USDA #8.

Source Iron content
mg/100g edible

dulse 150
kelp 100
rice bran 19.4
rice polish 16.1
wheat bran 14.9
pumpkin seed 11.2
squash seed 11.2
sesame seed 10.5
wheat germ 9.4
Irish moss 8.9
soybean, dry 8.4
pigeonpea, dry 8.0
white bean, dry 7.8
lima bean, dry 7.8
hot red pepper, dry 7.8
mung bean, dry 7.7
pistacio nut 7.3
sunflower seed 7.1
broadbean, dry 7.1
red bean, dry 6.9
chickpea, dry 6.9
butternut 6.8
lentile, dry 6.8
millet 6.8
pinto bean, dry 6.4
agar 6.3
parsley 6.2
peach, dry 6.0
black walnut 6.0
cowpea, dry 5.8
apricot, dry 5.5
longan, dry 5.4
pinon nut 5.2
pea, dry 5.1
almond 4.7
prune dry 4.4
sorghum grain 4.4
durim wheat 4.3
wild rice 4.2
prune, dry 3.9
cashew nut 3.8
rye grain 3.7
raisin 3.5
purslane 3.5
wheat, soft winter 3.5
Brazilnut 3.4
filbert 3.4
pilinut 3.4
Jerusalem artichoke 3.4
wheat, hard winter 3.4
chestnut, dry 3.3
coconut, dry 3.3
beet greens 3.3
Swiss chard 3.2
English walnut 3.1
dandelion greens 3.1
spinach 3.1
wheat, hard spring 3.1
mustard greens 3.0
white wheat 3.0
dates 3.0
fig, dried 3.0
banana, dried 2.8
tamarind 2.8
Lima bean, fresh 2.8
soybean, fresh 2.8
fennel 2.7
kale leaves 2.7
barley, Scotch pearl 2.7
New Zealand spinach 2.6
persimmon 2.5
swamp cabbage 2.5
sesame seed, hulled 2.4
hickory nut 2.4
pecan 2.4
cow pea, fresh 2.3
kale, leaves/stems 2.2
broadbean, fresh 2.2
peanut 2.1
lettuce, Boston bibb 2.0
Macadamia nut 2.0
BEEF - PRIME GRADE 2.0 <<<<<

So, when we think beyond the propaganda and actually look
at the facts, we can readily determine that yet another
horrendous lie is being propagated by the meat-industry
advertising campaign. Here, 81 common plant-based foods
have more, or the same amount of, iron than beef. Any
kind of vegetarian diet will provide ample iron. Worse
yet, the iron in animal flesh is heme (blood) iron and is
now know to be a risk factor in cancer and cardiovascular
diseases.

- - -

The Heme Iron Problem

Heme (blood) iron, cancer, and cardiovascular disease.

Iron encourages production of free radicals which can
damage DNA and presumably increase cancer risk. In a
study of over 14,000 individuals, high iron intake and
high iron body stores were both positively linked to the
risk of colon cancer. Higher levels of iron were
associated with higher incidence of colon polyps,
possible forerunners of colon tumors. However, cancer
patients themselves had low levels of stored iron,
indicating that cancer itself can deplete iron stores.
[1]

Controversy has surrounded the question as to whether too
much iron in your diet raises your risk for heart
disease. A new study from the Harvard University School
of Public Health brings new insight to the debate.
Lasting for 4 years, this research involved more than
50,000 male health professionals. It was found that
total iron intake was not associated with heart disease
risk. But the source of the iron came was the principle
factor. High levels of heme iron raised risk for heart
disease twofold. Heme iron is the type of iron found in
meat, chicken and fish.

Plant foods contain non-heme iron which appears to not be
associated with risk for heart attack. Traditionally,
many nutritionists used to consider non-heme iron to be
inferior to the iron found in animal products, because
non-heme iron is somewhat less well absorbed. But new
evidence suggests that non-heme iron seems to be
preferable.

When the body is low in iron, it can increase absorption
of non-heme iron, and it can reduce adsorption when it
already has sufficient amounts. The heme iron in meats
tends to pass quickly right through the adsorption
mechanism, thus entering the blood stream whether it is
needed or not. Since vegetarians generally have adequate
iron intake, it is clear that non-heme iron can easily
meet nutritional needs. Also, plant iron doesn't create
the health risks of heme iron.

Iron increases heart disease risks because heme iron acts
as a pro-oxidant, causing LDL-cholesterol -- the 'bad'
cholesterol -- to react with oxygen. This reaction is
involved in the formation of plaques in the arteries and
therefore increases one's risk of cardiovascular
problems. [2]

[1] Nelson, Davis, Suffer, Sobin, Kikeenddl, Bowen. Body
iron stores and risk of colonic neoplasia. J Natl Canc
Inst 1994; 86:455-60

[2] Ascherio, Willett, Rimm, Giovannucci, Stampger.
Dietary iron intake and risk of coronary disease among
men. Circulation 1994; 89:969-74

- - -

Annals of Family Medicine 2:139-144 (2004)

The Mortality Risk of Elevated Serum Transferrin
Saturation and Consumption of Dietary Iron

Arch G. Mainous, III, PhD1, Brian Wells, MD1, Peter J.
Carek, MD, MS1, James M. Gill, MD, MPH2 and Mark E.
Geesey, MS1

1 Department of Family Medicine, Medical University of
South Carolina, Charleston, SC

2 Department of Family & Community Medicine, Christiana
Care Health System, Wilmington, Del

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Arch G. Mainous III, PhD,
Department of Family Medicine, Medical University of
South Carolina, PO Box 250192, 295 Calhoun Street,
Charleston, SC 29425, maino...@musc.edu

BACKGROUND Recent data shows an increased mortality
risk associated with elevated transferrin saturation.
Because ingestion of dietary iron may contribute to iron
overload in persons with elevated transferrin saturation,
we investigated the relationship between elevated
transferrin saturation, ingestion of dietary iron and red
meat, and mortality.

METHODS This 12-year cohort study used data from the
second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
1976-1980 (NHANES II) and the NHANES II Mortality Study
1992. Population estimates were based on 9,229 persons
aged 35 to 70 years at baseline. A Cox proportional
hazards analysis was performed based on levels of
transferrin saturation, intake of dietary iron, and
intake of red meat. The analysis was conducted while
controlling for demographics, severity of illness, body
mass index, and smoking status.

RESULTS Unadjusted analyses indicated that those who
had a high transferrin saturation and reported high
dietary iron or red meat consumption had an increased
mortality risk. The adjusted survival analysis indicated
that persons with elevated transferrin saturation who
reported high dietary iron intake had a hazard ratio for
death of 2.90 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.39-6.04)
compared with those with normal transferrin saturation
levels and reported low dietary iron intake. Persons who
had a high transferrin saturation and reported high red
meat consumption also had an increased hazard ratio for
death (2.26; 95% CI, 1.45-3.52) compared with those who
had normal transferrin saturation and reported low red
meat consumption.

CONCLUSIONS Ingestion of large quantities of dietary
iron and red meat in persons with high transferrin
saturation is associated with an increase in mortality.
Simple dietary restrictions may reduce the mortality risk
associated with high transferrin saturation.

- - -

Eur J Haematol. 2002 Jun; 68(6): 332-40.

Iron status in Danish men 1984-94: a cohort comparison of
changes in iron stores and the prevalence of iron
deficiency and iron overload.

Milman N, Byg KE, Ovesen L, Kirchhoff M, Jurgensen KS.

Department of Medicine B, Rigshospitalet, University of
Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. nils....@dadlnet.dk

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: From 1954 to 1987, flour in
Denmark was fortified with 30 mg carbonyl iron per kg.
This mandatory fortification was abolished in 1987. The
aim of this study was to compare iron status in Danish
men before and after abolition of iron fortification.

METHODS: Iron status (serum ferritin, haemoglobin), was
assessed in population surveys in Copenhagen County
during 1983-84 comprising 1324 Caucasian men (1024 non-
blood-donors, 300 blood donors) and in 1993-94 comprising
1288 Caucasian men (1103 non-blood-donors, 185 donors),
equally distributed in age cohorts of 40, 50, 60 and 70
yr.

RESULTS: In the 1984 survey median serum ferritin
values in the four age cohorts in non-blood-donors were
136, 141, 133 and 111 microg/L, and in the 1994 survey
177, 173, 186 and 148 microg L(-1), respectively. The
difference was significant in all age groups (P<0.001).
There was no significant difference between the two
surveys concerning the prevalence of small iron stores
(ferritin 16-32 micro g L(-1)), depleted iron stores
(ferritin <16 microg L(-1)) or iron-deficiency anaemia
(ferritin <13 microg L(-1) and Hb <5th percentile for
iron-replete men). However, from 1984 to 1994, the
prevalence of iron overload (ferritin >300 microg L(-1))
increased from 11.3% to 18.9% (P<0.0001). During the
study period there was an increase in body mass index
(P<0.0001), alcohol consumption (P<0.03) and use of non-
steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) (P<0.0001), and a
decrease in the use of vitamin-mineral supplements
(P<0.04) and in the prevalence of tobacco smoking
(P<0.0001). In contrast, median ferritin in blood donors
showed a significant fall from 1984 to 1994 (103 vs. 74
micro g L(-1), P<0.02).

CONCLUSION: Abolition of iron fortification reduced the
iron content of the Danish diet by an average of 0.24 mg
MJ(-1), and the median dietary iron intake in men from 17
to 12 mg d(-1). From 1984 to 1994, body iron stores and
the prevalence of iron overload in Danish men increased
significantly, despite the abolition of food iron
fortification. The reason appears to be changes in
dietary habits, with a lower consumption of dairy
products and eggs, which inhibit iron absorption, and a
higher consumption of alcohol, meat, and poultry,
containing haem iron and enhancing iron absorption. The
high prevalence of iron overload in men may constitute a
health risk.

PMID: 12225390

- - -

Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Oct;78(4):782-9.

Milk folate but not milk iron concentrations may be
inadequate for some infants in a rural farming community
in San Mateo, Capulhuac, Mexico.

Villalpando S, Latulippe ME, Rosas G, Irurita MJ,
Picciano MF, O'Connor DL.

Basic Nutrition Division, Instituto Nacional de Salud
Publica, Cuernavaca, Mexico.

BACKGROUND: We were interested in identifying possible
nutritional reasons for growth faltering among breastfed
infants in the rural farming community of San Mateo,
Capulhuac, Mexico (2800 m above sea level).

OBJECTIVE: We examined the prevalence of inadequate
iron and folate status among lactating Otomi women and
determined to what extent their iron and folate nutriture
influenced the milk concentrations of these nutrients.

DESIGN: Lactating women (n = 71) provided blood and
milk samples and dietary information at a mean (+/- SD)
of 22 +/- 13 d postpartum. Blood indexes included
hemoglobin, hematocrit, serum iron, total-iron-binding
capacity, ferritin, transferrin receptor, mean cell
volume, plasma folate, and erythrocyte folate.

RESULTS: Approximately 62% and 58% of the women had
nutritional anemia defined as a hemoglobin concentration
Milk iron content was unrelated to maternal iron status,
and the milk provided more than adequate amounts of iron
to the infants. In contrast, the infants' predicted
folate intake was approximately 45 micro g/d, or 70% of
the current recommended intake.

CONCLUSION: Milk folate concentrations in Otomi women
are low and may not support optimal folate status in all
breastfed infants.

PMID: 14522737

- - -

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2003
Aug;285(2):G354-G359. Epub 2003 Apr 30.

New method to study oxidative damage and antioxidants in
the human small bowel: effects of iron application.

Troost FJ, Saris WH, Haenen GR, Bast A, Brummer RJ. Dept.
of Human Biology, Nutrition and Toxicology Research
Institute Maastricht, Maastricht University, PO Box 616,
6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands (E-mail
f*.@hb.unimaas.nl

Iron may induce oxidative damage to the intestinal
mucosa by its catalyzing role in the formation of highly
reactive hydroxyl radicals. This study aimed to determine
iron-induced oxidative damage provoked by a single
clinical dosage of ferrous sulfate and to elucidate the
antioxidant defense mechanisms in the human small
intestine in vivo. A double-lumen perfusion tube was
positioned orogastrically into a 40-cm segment of the
proximal small intestine in six healthy volunteers (25
+/- 5 yr). The segment was perfused with saline and
subsequently with saline containing 80 mg iron as ferrous
sulfate at a rate of 10 ml/min. Intestinal fluid samples
were collected at 15-min intervals. Thiobarbituric acid
reactive substances concentrations as an indicator of
lipid peroxidation increased significantly from 0.07
microM (range, 0-0.33 microM) during saline perfusion to
3.35 microM (range, 1.19-7.27 microM) during iron
perfusion (P < 0.05). Nonprotein antioxidant capacity
increased significantly from 474 microM (range, 162-748
microM) to 1,314 microM (range, 674-1,542 microM) (P <
0.05). These data show that a single dosage of ferrous
sulfate induces oxidative damage and the subsequent
release of an antioxidant in the small intestine in vivo
in healthy volunteers.

PMID: 12724133

- - -

Journal of the American Dietetic Association, May 2003
v103 i5 p601(1)

Iron fulfillment possible through vegetarian lifestyle.

Damon Brown. Full Text: COPYRIGHT 2003 American Dietetic
Association

Iron status is not an unusual concern for current as
well as potential vegetarians since meat, a strong iron
source, must be replaced by other foods. In the previous
piece researchers Wells, Haub, Fluckey, Williams,
Chernoff, and Campbell compared the iron status of older
men consuming a vegetarian (lacto-ovo) diet to those
consuming a beef diet. The 21 men, aged 59 to 78 years
and having a BMI range of 24 to 33 kg/[m.sup.2], were
observed over 12 weeks while resistive training.

These results suggest that a beef-containing diet may
better maintain or improve hematological indexes during
resistive training," the researchers say, adding that it
"should be noted that the [v]egitarian group's
hematological profile was maintained within normal ranges
and did not decline over time with resistance training
and continued consumption of a meat-free diet."

"That's basically the take home message: vegetarian
diets aren't automatically going to lead to poor iron
status," says Enette Larson-Myer PhD, assistant professor
of Health and Performance Enhancement at Pennington
Biomedical Research Center in Baton Rouge, LA.

However, Larson-Myer says that the research does give a
word of advice for vegetarians. "I think they suggest
that vegetarians need to be a little bit more cautious in
their iron choices or in the foods that they consume
along with their iron sources.

" For example, she says vegetarians should add a glass
of citrus juice or another organic acid during the meal
to facilitate iron absorption and avoid tea or other
drinks that inhibit iron absorption. Larson-Myer, who is
also Director of the Pennington Nutrition and Exercise
Lab, says that "when working with vegetarian athletes,
always urge them to increase a variety of good sources of
iron: cereals, organic acids, legumes... to help insure
that any iron in that meal facilitates absorption.

Reed Mangels PhD, RD, FADA, Nutrition Advisor for the
nonprofit Baltimore, MD-based Vegetarian Resource Group,
found two major points in the results. "One, it would
reassure dietitians that people with vegetarian diets
with adequate iron can maintain a normal hematological
profile. Secondly, that a vegetarian diet may offer some
advantages to older men because of lower fat intake on
this partially self-selecting vegetarian diet group."

For Mangels, whose organization publishes the quarterly
magazine The Vegetarian Journal, it is a comfort to hear
positive results regarding vegetarians and iron.

"As you look at this study, it's interesting how
everything really stayed within the normal range. It's
reassuring," Mangels says. "There's this old myth that
vegetarians don't get enough iron and can't absorb it as
well, and here's this research saying that both
[vegetarian and non-vegetarian] groups are getting the
iron they need."

- - -

J Nutr 2003 May;133(5 Suppl 2):1700S-1708S

Iron and oxidative stress in pregnancy.

Casanueva E, Viteri FE Instituto Nacional de
Perinatologia, Mexico, DF, Mexico.

Pregnancy, mostly because of the mitochondria-rich
placenta, is a condition that favors oxidative stress.
Transitional metals, especially iron, which is
particularly abundant in the placenta, are important in
the production of free radicals. Protective mechanisms
against free radical generation and damage increase
throughout pregnancy and protect the fetus, which,
however, is subjected to a degree of oxidative stress.
Oxidative stress peaks by the second trimester of
pregnancy, ending what appears to be a vulnerable period
for fetal health and gestational progress. Conditions
restricted to pregnancy, such as gestational
hypertension, insulin resistance and diabetes, exhibit
exaggerated indications of free radical damage.
Antioxidants as well as avoidance of iron excess
ameliorate maternal and early fetal damage. In rats both
iron deficiency and excess result in free radical
mitochondrial damage. Estimates of gestational iron
requirements and of the proportion of iron absorbed from
different iron supplemental doses suggest that with
present supplementation schemes the intestinal mucosal
cells are constantly exposed to unabsorbed iron excess
and oxidative stress. Unpublished work carried out in
Mexico City with nonanemic women at midpregnancy
indicates that 60 mg/d of iron increases the risk of
hemoconcentration, low birth weight and premature birth
and produces a progressive decline in plasma copper.
These risks are not observed in women supplemented with
120 mg iron once or twice per week. Studies on the
influence of iron supplementation schemes on oxidative
stress are needed. [Note: the Life Extension Foundation
removed iron from their supplements when information of
this type first became available - ljf.]

PMID: 12730487

- - -

J Am Diet Assoc 2003 May;103(5):594-601

Comparisons of vegetarian and beef-containing diets on
hematological indexes and iron stores during a period of
resistive training in older men.

Wells AM, Haub MD, Fluckey J, Williams DK, Chernoff R,
Campbell WW. General Clinical Research Center, University
of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, USA.

OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that older men who
consumed a vegetarian (lacto-ovo) diet would develop a
lower iron status compared with older men who consumed a
beef-containing diet during a period of resistive
training (RT).

DESIGN: Experimental, repeated measures study.

SUBJECTS: Twenty-one healthy men aged 59 to 78 years,
with a BMI range of 24 to 33 kg/m(2), completed the
study.

INTERVENTION: All men consumed a vegetarian diet for 2
weeks (baseline). After this, the men were randomly
assigned to one of two dietary groups. Eleven men
consumed a beef-containing diet, and 10 men continued to
consume a vegetarian diet for 12 weeks. During this time
all subjects participated in RT three days per week,
designated as RT1 to RT12.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Serum ferritin and serum iron
concentrations, transferrin saturation, transferrin
receptor, total iron binding capacity, and selected
hematological variables, as well as selected nutrient
intakes and estimated iron bioavailability from three-day
diet records, were determined at baseline, RT5, and RT12.


STATISTICAL ANALYSES: A general linear model repeated-
measures ANOVA was used to examine the effects of group,
time, and group x time interactions for iron status and
dietary data.

RESULTS: Total iron intake was not different between
the two groups; however, the beef group had a three to
four times greater intake of bioavailable iron (P<.01)
than the vegetarian group. Serum iron, total iron binding
capacity, transferrin saturation, and transferrin
receptor were not significantly different between the
beef and vegetarian groups, or changed over time with RT.
Serum ferritin decreased over time in both the beef and
vegetarian groups during RT (P<.01). Re-introduction of
beef into the diets of the beef group increased
hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit compared with the
vegetarian group during the 12 weeks of RT (group x time,
P<.05). These changes were within clinically normal
limits.

APPLICATIONS/CONCLUSIONS: Older men who consume a beef-
containing, higher-bioavailable-iron diet, compared with
a vegetarian, lower-bioavailable-iron diet, have an
increased hematological profile during a 12-week period
of RT. Older men who consume either a beef-containing or
a vegetarian diet maintain a hematological profile within
clinically normal limits during 12 weeks of RT.

PMID: 12728219

- - -

J Am Diet Assoc 2003 May;103(5):594-601

Comparisons of vegetarian and beef-containing diets on
hematological indexes and iron stores during a period of
resistive training in older men.

Wells AM, Haub MD, Fluckey J, Williams DK, Chernoff R,
Campbell WW. General Clinical Research Center, University
of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, USA.

OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that older men who
consumed a vegetarian (lacto-ovo) diet would develop a
lower iron status compared with older men who consumed a
beef-containing diet during a period of resistive
training (RT).

DESIGN: Experimental, repeated measures study.

SUBJECTS: Twenty-one healthy men aged 59 to 78 years,
with a BMI range of 24 to 33 kg/m(2), completed the
study.

INTERVENTION: All men consumed a vegetarian diet for 2
weeks (baseline). After this, the men were randomly
assigned to one of two dietary groups. Eleven men
consumed a beef-containing diet, and 10 men continued to
consume a vegetarian diet for 12 weeks. During this time
all subjects participated in RT three days per week,
designated as RT1 to RT12.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Serum ferritin and serum iron
concentrations, transferrin saturation, transferrin
receptor, total iron binding capacity, and selected
hematological variables, as well as selected nutrient
intakes and estimated iron bioavailability from three-day
diet records, were determined at baseline, RT5, and RT12.


STATISTICAL ANALYSES: A general linear model repeated-
measures ANOVA was used to examine the effects of group,
time, and group x time interactions for iron status and
dietary data.

RESULTS: Total iron intake was not different between
the two groups; however, the beef group had a three to
four times greater intake of bioavailable iron (P<.01)
than the vegetarian group. Serum iron, total iron binding
capacity, transferrin saturation, and transferrin
receptor were not significantly different between the
beef and vegetarian groups, or changed over time with RT.
[So where is the effect of the alleged "greater intake of
bioavailable iron"? - ljf] Serum ferritin decreased over
time in both the beef and vegetarian groups during RT
(P<.01). Re-introduction of beef into the diets of the
beef group increased hemoglobin concentration and
hematocrit compared with the vegetarian group during the
12 weeks of RT (group x time, P<.05). These changes were
within clinically normal limits.

APPLICATIONS/CONCLUSIONS: Older men who consume a beef-
containing, higher-bioavailable-iron diet, compared with
a vegetarian, lower-bioavailable-iron diet, have an
increased hematological profile during a 12-week period
of RT. Older men who consume either a beef-containing or
a vegetarian diet maintain a hematological profile within
clinically normal limits during 12 weeks of RT.

PMID: 12728219

- - -

Nutr Rev 2002 May;60(5 Pt 1):127-34

Moving toward a plant-based diet: are iron and zinc at
risk?

Hunt JR. USDA-ARS Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research
Center, ND 58202, USA.

With reduced intake of meat and increased intake of
phytate-containing legumes and whole grains, movement
toward plant-based diets reduces dietary iron and zinc
absorption. Although vegetarians have lower iron stores,
adverse health effects of lower iron and zinc absorption
have not been demonstrated with varied, plant-based diets
consumed in developed countries. Improved assessment
methods and monitoring are needed to detect and prevent
possible iron and zinc deficiency with plant-based diets.


PMID: 12030275

- - -

Am J Clin Nutr 1999 Sep;70(3):353-8

Dietary intake and iron status of Australian vegetarian
women.

Ball MJ, Bartlett MA. School of Nutrition and Public
Health, Deakin University, Burwood, Australia.
m*.@deakin.edu.au

BACKGROUND: Despite the possible overall health
benefits of a vegetarian diet, there is concern that some
vegetarians and infrequent meat eaters, particularly
females, may have inadequate iron status because of low
or no heme-iron intakes.

OBJECTIVE: The objective was to investigate the
nutritional intake and iron status of vegetarian women.

DESIGN: The nutritional intakes of 50 free-living
vegetarian women aged 18-45 y and 24 age-matched
omnivorous control women were assessed by using 12-d
weighed dietary records. Iron status was assessed by
measuring hemoglobin and serum ferritin concentrations.

RESULTS: There was no significant difference between
mean (+/-SD) daily iron intakes of vegetarians and
omnivores (10.7 +/- 4.4 and 9.9 +/- 2.9 mg,
respectively), although heme-iron intakes were low in the
vegetarians. Vegetarians had significantly lower intakes
of protein (P < 0.01), saturated fat (P < 0.01), and
cholesterol (P < 0.001), and significantly higher intakes
of dietary fiber (P < 0.001) and vitamin C (P < 0.05).
Mean serum ferritin concentrations were significantly
lower (P = 0.025) in vegetarians (25.0 +/- 16.2 microg/L)
than in omnivores (45.5 +/- 42.5 microg/L). However,
similar numbers of vegetarians (18%) and omnivores (13%)
had serum ferritin concentrations <12 microg/L, which is
a value often used as an indicator of low iron stores.
Hemoglobin concentrations were not significantly
different.

CONCLUSION: It is important that both vegetarian and
omnivorous women maintain an adequate iron status and
follow dietary practices that enhance iron absorption.

PMID: 10479197

http://www.ecologos.org/iron.htm

End of forwarded message from Fidyl <fi...@yahoo.com>

Jai Maharaj, Jyotishi
Om Shanti


[ Subject: IRON CONTENT OF COMMON FOODS in milligrams per 100 calories
[ From: Dr. Jai Maharaj
[ Date: Tue, 31 Aug 2010

IRON CONTENT OF COMMON FOODS

(in Milligrams per 100 Calories)

Use a fixed-width font to view.

Spinach 11.3 #############################################
Cucumber 6.0 #######################
Lettuce 3.8 ################
Bell Pepper 3.3 #############
Strawberries 2.7 ###########
Cabbage 2.4 ##########
Lima Beans 2.3 ##########
Sirloin Steak 1.9 ########
Grapefruit 1.1 ####
Wheat 1.1 ####
Ground Beef 1.1 ####
Chicken Breast 0.8 ###
Bologna 0.6 ##
Cheddar Cheese <.1
Cottage Cheese <.1
Milk <.1

Source: "Nutritive Value of American Foods in Common Units", U.S.D.A.
Handbook No. 456

Jai Maharaj, Jyotishi
Om Shanti

o Not for commercial use. Solely to be fairly used for the educational
purposes of research and open discussion. The contents of this post may not
have been authored by, and do not necessarily represent the opinion of the
poster. The contents are protected by copyright law and the exemption for
fair use of copyrighted works.
o If you send private e-mail to me, it will likely not be read,
considered or answered if it does not contain your full legal name, current
e-mail and postal addresses, and live-voice telephone number.
o Posted for information and discussion. Views expressed by others are
not necessarily those of the poster who may or may not have read the article.

FAIR USE NOTICE: This article may contain copyrighted material the use of
which may or may not have been specifically authorized by the copyright
owner. This material is being made available in efforts to advance the
understanding of environmental, political, human rights, economic,
democratic, scientific, social, and cultural, etc., issues. It is believed
that this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as
provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. In accordance with Title
17 U.S.C. Section 107, the material on this site is distributed without
profit to those who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the included
information for research, comment, discussion and educational purposes by
subscribing to USENET newsgroups or visiting web sites. For more information
go to: http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.shtml
If you wish to use copyrighted material from this article for purposes of
your own that go beyond 'fair use', you must obtain permission from the
copyright owner.

Since newsgroup posts are being removed
by forgery by one or more net terrorists,
this post may be reposted several times.


P. Rajah
2010-09-07 16:17:33 EST
http://paleodiet.com/
http://www.earth360.com/diet_paleodiet_balzer.html
Page: 1   (First | Last)


2020 - UsenetArchives.com | Contact Us | Privacy | Stats | Site Search
Become our Patron