Vegetarian Discussion: Meet Your Meat. Blue Tongue Virus A Global Threat. Time To Go Veggie?

Meet Your Meat. Blue Tongue Virus A Global Threat. Time To Go Veggie?
Posts: 9

Report Abuse

Use this form to report abuse or request takedown.
The requests are usually processed within 48 hours.

Page: 1   (First | Last)

Old Codger
2007-09-16 06:16:58 EST
Yet another virus affecting livestock, and the food you eat.

Just what is in out meat?

Where do you think these infected animals really end up? In your
burger, Sunday roast etc.



ANIMAL HEALTHDISEASE CARDS

Bluetongue


Names
Pathogen(s)

Preferred Name : Bluetongue virus

Disease/Parasitosis

Preferred Name : Bluetongue

Common Names :

Spanish: Lengua azul

French: Fievre catarrhale du mouton



Overview

Bluetongue virus is an arbovirus (arthropod borne) that naturally
infects domestic and wild ruminants, camelids and some other
herbivores such as elephants. Bluetongue virus is transmitted by
several species of Culicoides (biting midges). Bluetongue is almost
exclusively a disease of sheep, although white-tailed deer, pronghorn
and desert bighorn sheep may suffer disease in North America. In
cattle and goats clinical disease is rare, and, when present, is much
milder than in sheep (Verwoerd and Erasmus, 1994).

Bluetongue can cause spectacular disease outbreaks and is placed in
the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) List A disease category.
Affected sheep may die after acute or chronic disease, or may recover
with weight loss and/or wool breaks.

Bluetongue was first described in South Africa after Merino sheep from
Europe were introduced in the late eighteenth century (Verwoerd and
Erasmus, 1994). The disease was considered confined to South Africa
and for many years research efforts on the virus and the disease were
exclusively undertaken in that country, mostly at the Onderstepoort
Veterinary Institute. The viral nature of the disease was established,
as was its insect spread and multiple virus serotypes (Howell, 1960;
1970). There are now 24 serotypes of bluetongue virus recognized
worldwide.

Bluetongue virus is the type species of the genus orbivirus in the
family Reoviridae. Initially the virus was classified as an arbovirus
but it appeared to share some properties with reoviruses and was
provisionally classified as a reovirus. However, bluetongue virus
differs in some respects from reoviruses and, along with a number of
other related viruses, was classified in a separate genus by Borden et
al. (1971).


Back


Animals Affected Table

See Table


Animals Affected

Bluetongue is an arbovirus, infecting vertebrates and invertebrates
cyclically.

Bluetongue virus naturally infects domestic and wild ruminants,
camelids and some other herbivores such as elephants. Historically,
the primary cycle may have involved species of African antelope, but
this role has now been taken over by cattle (Erasmus, 1990).

Midges of the genus Culicoides act as biological vectors of bluetongue
virus. Of the approximately 1400 species of Culicoides world-wide,
less than 20 are considered actual or possible vectors (OIE, 1998;
Mellor, 1990). The most well-studied vector species are C. variipennis
and C. insignis in the USA, C. fulvus, C. wadai, C. actoni and C.
brevitarsis in Australia, and C. imicola in Africa and the Middle East
(Erasmus, 1990). It is possible that additional vector species will be
identified in countries such as China and Bulgaria where bluetongue
has been recognized only recently.

Back


Epidemiology

Bluetongue virus is an arbovirus that has evolved a life cycle where
alternate cycles of virus replication in vertebrate and invertebrate
hosts are essential for virus persistence. There is no evidence of
vertical transmission of the virus in the invertebrate host.
Observations on the placental transmission of virus in the vertebrate
host are contradictory (Roberts, 1990) and therefore any vertical
transmission in vertebrates is considered to be of no consequence to
virus ecology. There is little evidence of direct or indirect contact
transmission in either host, other than rare instances of seminal
transmission in vertebrates (OIE, 1998). The virus cannot be spread by
meat, milk or dairy products. Cattle are the primary vertebrate hosts
(Erasmus, 1990) and a small number of species of Culicoides midges are
the only insect hosts (Mellor, 1990). The rare recovery of bluetongue
virus from other insects is of no ecological significance.

The insect vectors of bluetongue virus breed in moist conditions in a
variety of habitats, particularly damp, muddy areas and in faecal and
plant matter. They have nocturnal feeding habits, preferring still,
warm conditions, pastures and open pens. At least some
speciesØpreferentially feed on cattle. Females take a blood meal prior
to egg laying, feed at roughly 4-day intervals and live for aboutØ2
toØ3 weeks. The eggs hatch inØ2 toØ3 days and depending on the
temperature, the larval stage lasts 12 to 16 days. Adults emergeØ2
toØ3 days after pupation and take a blood mealØ1 day later and they
also mate during this time (Roberts, 1990). The activities of the
midge are influenced by temperature and the optimum lies between 13o
and 35oC (Sellers, 1981).

As summarized by Gibbs and Greiner (1994), bluetongue is a common,
generally subclinical infection of ruminants throughout the tropics
and subtropics, within a number of separate ecosystems. Seasonal
incursions of the virus into more temperate latitudes, sometimes
accompanied by disease, may occur under favourable climatic conditions
at certain key locations. There is evidence that infected midges are
carried on the wind for long distances (Sellers, 1981). It has been
postulated that the major epidemics of bluetongue, in regions where
disease occurs only sporadically, can often be traced to windborne
carriage of infected Culicoides from distant areas (Gibbs and Greiner,
1988).

Critical in the understanding of the epidemiology of bluetongue is
knowledge of the virus competence of the Culicoides species in
different ecosystems, but vector competency research is a very
specialised discipline. Not only may different populations of a
species of midge have varying susceptibilities to a strain of virus,
but a single strain of the vector may have differing susceptibility to
different virus serotypes (Mellor, 1990).

Competent midges may be infected when biting viraemic vertebrates. The
chance of infection depends in part on the genotype of the midge, the
strain of virus, the level of viraemia, and environmental factors
(Mellor et al., 2000). The extrinsic incubation period (the period
between feeding on infected blood and the appearance of virus in the
saliva of the midge) is 1-2 weeks.

The colonised USA vector, C. variipennis, is able to ingest
approximately 10-4ml of blood (Mellor, 1990), whereas the most widely
distributed Australian vector, C. brevitarsis, has a blood meal volume
of around 10-4.5ml (Muller et al., 1982). Therefore viraemia must be
of the order of 104 infectious units of virus per ml or greater for
feeding midges to have much chance of infection. OIE (1998) summarized
reported peak levels of viraemia, in virus infectious units per ml of
blood, as 104.4 to 106.3 for cattle, 106.4 to 108.0 for sheep and
106.0 for goats, though levels reached are mostly much lower. Viraemia
peaks in the first two weeks after infection, before the appearance of
serum antibody. Virus titres then drop rapidly and are very low if
infections persist for a month or more.

The duration of viraemia in the infected vertebrate is an important
factor in the transmission of bluetongue virus to biting, competent
midges. Bluetongue is no longer considered a persistent infection of
ruminants, especially cattle (MacLachlan, 1994). Singer et al. (2001)
analyzed a large volume of existing data on the length of bluetongue
viraemia of cattle and concluded that this was equal to or less than 9
weeks in >99% of adults. OIE (1998) report the viraemia of most cattle
as less than 4 weeks with fewer than 1% exceeding 8 weeks. The maximum
viraemia reported for sheep is 54 days (Koumbati et al., 1999), but
this is exceptional.

Back


Distribution Table

See Table


Distribution

In 1943 bluetongue disease was reported in Cyprus, and outbreaks were
subsequently reported in Israel, the USA, Portugal, Spain, Pakistan
and India (Verwoerd and Erasmus, 1994). Over the past 30 years
evidence of regular virus activity, but not necessarily disease, has
been found in most countries in the tropics and subtropics with
substantial populations of ruminants. The virus may be found in a
geographic band between latitudes 40oN and 35oS. The presence of
bluetongue virus within this band, whether year round or seasonal,
depends on the climatic zone type. Genetic studies (topotyping)
indicate that the virus exists in discrete, stable ecosystems,
probably the result of co-evolution of different strains of the virus
and vectors (OIE, 1998). Numerous countries in the tropics and
subtropics have bluetongue virus unknowingly circulating subclinically
in cattle and other ruminants. A properly designed serological survey
would reveal the presence of the virus. The virus is endemic in areas
of some countries, being more or less continuously active. Depending
on climatic factors affecting the vector, in most years the virus will
seasonally extend to adjacent areas (Gibbs and Greiner, 1988). In
exceptionally favourable years the virus will spread even further,
such as to Portugal and Spain in 1956, to British Columbia in 1988, to
Bulgaria, continental Greece and Tunisia in 1999 and to Algeria,
Sardinia, Corsica, Majorca, Minorca, Sicily and continental Italy in
2000.

Back


Economic Importance and Impact

Bluetongue can be a costly infection for several reasons. The clinical
disease in sheep can be severe, resulting in deaths, weight loss and
wool break. In some countries where disease is endemic (South Africa
and some States of the USA), vaccination is a recurring cost. However
the greater cost of bluetongue is to infected countries which export
live animals, germplasm and some animal products such as foetal calf
serum. Here the presence of bluetongue virus, even if wholly
subclinical, causes loss of trade due to restrictions on the source of
animals, and the costs of health testing. It has been estimated that
in the late 1970s, the ban on US cattle semen exports resulted in an
annual loss of $24 million (Gibbs and Greiner, 1988).

Bluetongue is included in the OIE List A diseases, largely because of
dramatic outbreaks of disease in Cyprus in 1943 and Portugal and Spain
in 1956. The Cyprus outbreak was due to a particularly virulent strain
of the virus causing between 60 and 70% losses in some flocks
(Gambles, 1949). The Iberian outbreaks were also spectacular. Within
the firstØ4 months 46,000 sheep had died in Portugal and 133,000 in
Spain (Roberts, 1990). This listing of bluetongue in the most serious
of animal diseases exacerbates the trade sensitivity and associated
costs to countries with the infection, and has been challenged by some
(Gibbs and Greiner, 1994).

Back


Disease Systems

See Table


Disease Course

Natural bluetongue infection is usually subclinical. Bluetongue
disease is the result of a complex interaction between the animal, the
virus and the environment. Bluetongue is almost exclusively a disease
of sheep, with European breeds most susceptible. Most breeds of sheep,
especially in regions where the virus is endemic, are resistant to
disease though there is increasing information that native breeds in
India and China can be clinically affected. Outbreaks of disease
typically occur either when susceptible sheep are introduced to
endemic areas, or when infected midges carry the virus from endemic
regions to adjacent areas containing populations of
immunologically-na¨ve, susceptible sheep.

Many strains of bluetongue virus appear incapable of causing
significant disease following natural or experimental infection of
breeds of sheep known to be susceptible to disease. Experimental
reproduction of disease can be inconsistent, except with the most
virulent strains of virus. This could be because exposure of sunlight
can have a marked influence on the severity of disease (Erasmus,
1990). Passage of virulent field virus in cell cultures rapidly
reduces virus virulence (Gard, 1987).

After introduction by the bite of an infected midge, bluetongue virus
first replicates in the local lymph nodes and subsequently induces a
primary viraemia which seeds other lymph nodes, spleen, lung and
vascular endothelium (Gibbs and Greiner, 1988). Circulating virus
associates with blood cells, mostly with erythrocytes and platelets,
though virus associated with mononuclear cells is critical for
dissemination of virus throughout the animal. Later in viraemia, the
virus is exclusively associated with erythrocytes (MacLachlan, 1994).
Virus particles appear to be sequestered in invaginations of the
erythrocyte membrane, allowing prolonged viraemia in the presence of
neutralizing antibodies (OIE, 1998).

Fever is usual but not invariable. Other common clinical signs include
oedema (of lips, nose, face, submandibulum, eyelids and sometimes
ears), congestion (of mouth, nose, nasal cavity, conjunctiva, skin and
coronary bands), lameness and depression. The oedema of lips and nose
can give the sheep a 'monkey-face' appearance. There is frequently a
serous nasal discharge, later becoming mucopurulent. The congestion of
the nose and nasal cavity produces a 'sore muzzle' effect, the term
used to describe the disease seen in sheep in the USA before its
bluetongue virus aetiology was realized. The mouth is sore and the
sheep may champ to produce a frothy oral discharge. Sheep are not
strictly anorexic, but eat less because of oral soreness and will hold
food in their mouths to soften it before chewing. Affected sheep
occasionally have swollen, congested, cyanotic tongues. Lameness, due
to coronary band congestion, may occur early in the disease and
lameness or torticollis, as a result of skeletal muscle damage, may
occur later (OIE, 1998).

If fever occurs, sheep are first pyrexic 4-10 days after infection.
The other clinical signs soon follow with acute deaths occurring
during the second week following infection. Many of these deaths are
the result of pulmonary oedema and/or cardiac insufficiency. Further
sheep may die from chronic disease 3 to 5 weeks after infection with
bacterial complications, especially pasteurellosis. Under-nutrition
arising from lameness and depression may be contributing factors. The
production loss due to bluetongue may be the result of deaths,
unthriftiness during prolonged convalescence, wool breaks and possibly
reproductive wastage (OIE, 1998).

Although the frequency of infection of cattle with bluetongue virus is
generally higher than in sheep, disease in cattle is rare. Clinical
infection is actually a hypersensitivity reaction, including fever,
stiffness or lameness and increased respiratory rate. There may be
lacrimation and increased salivation. The skin of the muzzle is often
inflamed, and may crack and peel. The lips and tongue may be swollen,
with ulcers on the oral mucosa. Similarly, the skin of the neck,
flanks, perineum, and teats may be affected (Erasmus, 1990).

Hydranencephaly and congenital deformities may develop in bovine and
sheep foetuses of bluetongue virus-infected dams, the severity of
lesions depending on the stage of gestation. Foetuses seem to be most
susceptible during the period of active brain development (Erasmus,
1990). It is clear that cell culture-adapted virus more readily
crosses the placenta than unadapted virus, suggesting that the
occasional instances of natural virus-induced teratogenesis may be due
to strains of virus derived from live virus vaccines (MacLachlan,
1994).

Bluetongue in dogs associated with use of a contaminated vaccine was
reported by Akita et al. (1994). Only pregnant bitches were affected.


Back


Pathology

All of the pathology of bluetongue can be assigned to vascular
endothelial damage resulting in changes to capillary permeability and
fragility, with subsequent disseminated intravascular coagulation and
necrosis of tissues supplied by damaged capillaries. These changes
result in oedema, congestion, haemorrhage, inflammation and necrosis.

In animals dying acutely, the oral mucosa is hyperaemic and petechiae
or ecchymoses may be present. Excoriations may be in areas subject to
mechanical abrasion; the edges of lips, dental pad, tongue and cheeks
opposite the molar teeth. There may be hyperaemia in the
fore-stomachs. The lungs may be hyperaemic with severe alveolar and
interstitial oedema, froth in the bronchi, and excess fluid in the
thoracic cavity. The pericardial sac may have petechiae and excess
fluid. A variable sized haemorrhage in the tunica media near the base
of the pulmonary artery is almost pathognomonic. Subepicardial and
subendothelial haemorrhages, particularly involving the left
ventricle, are common. Generalized damage to the cardiovascular system
is evidenced by widespread hyperaemia, oedema and haemorrhage
(Erasmus, 1990).

Animals that die later than 14 days after infection often show
dramatic degeneration and necrosis of the skeletal musculature.
Muscles lose pigmentation and the inter-muscular fasciae are
infiltrated with a clear gelatinous fluid (Erasmus, 1990).

Microscopic examination of mucosal lesions shows mononuclear cell
infiltration, degeneration and necrosis of epithelial cells in which
large acidophilic intra-cytoplasmic masses accumulate. Affected
muscles have oedema, haemorrhage, hyaline degeneration and necrosis.
Infiltration by neutrophils, macrophages and lymphocytes is present in
acute cases (Verwoerd and Erasmus, 1994).

Back


Symptoms Table

See Table


Diagnosis

There is aØsummary of recommended procedures for bluetongue serology
and virus isolation (Afshar and Gard, 1995), while Afshar (1994)
provides details of the diagnosis methods. The isolation and
identification of bluetongue virus is also described in detail by
Clavijo et al. (2000).

The recommended tests for the detection of bluetongue
serogroup-specific antibodies are agar-gel-immunodiffusion and
competitive ELISA, with the latter becoming more popular because of
its greater accuracy and adaptation to conventional laboratory rapid
testing and reading technology. The recommended test for the detection
of serotype-specific antibodies is the virus neutralization test.

Bluetongue virus is usually isolated from tissues, or preferably red
blood cells washed free of any antibody, in embryonated chicken eggs.
Bluetongue virus may be detected in the inoculated eggs by antigen or
nucleic acid detection procedures or by passage to susceptible cell
cultures. Cell culture isolates are identified as bluetongue viruses
by tests based on group-specific antibodies and using fluorescent or
enzyme conjugates. Isolates placed in the bluetongue serogroup are
typed by virus neutralization tests using serotype-specific antisera.

Differential diagnosis should include contagious ecthyma, foot and
mouth disease, photosensitization, pneumonia, polyarthritis, footrot,
foot abscesses, plant poisonings, peste des petits ruminants,
coneurosis and epizootic haemorrhagic disease of deer.


Back


Disease Treatment Table

No data

Back


Disease Treatment

There is no treatment for bluetongue disease. The recovery of affected
animals will be aided by the provision of shade, water, feed and
shelter.

Back


Disease Prevention and Control

Bluetongue is a disease of sheep, but cattle are the principal
vertebrate reservoirs of the virus. Once established, it is impossible
to actively eradicate bluetongue virus. The virus will circulate,
generally subclinically, in cattle and other ruminants, and in midges.
In countries marginally suitable for virus persistence, the virus may
be maintained for several years before dying out. Bluetongue entered
Portugal and Spain in 1956 and appears to have persisted in Portugal
until 1959 and in Spain until 1960 (Roberts, 1990). In seasonally
infected areas, the onset of cold weather will reduce midge
populations to ineffective levels and cause the virus to retreat to
regions of year-round activity.

The bluetongue virus cycle could be interrupted by the immunization of
vertebrate hosts, especially cattle, removal of vectors or prevention
of vector attack. Understandably, the immunization of animals that
will not suffer from the disease is not acceptable to farmers. The
control of midges by the application of insecticides and larvicides to
insect resting and breeding sites, or systemically to cattle, has not
been fully investigated but is likely to have local success only.
Protecting sheep from exposure to midges is a more practical approach
and can be achieved by moving sheep from insect resting and breeding
sites, stabling animals overnight or the use of insect repellents.
Mixing cattle with sheep will draw vectors with a host preference for
cattle from sheep, but may raise the virus infection level of the
midge population.

Prophylactic immunization of sheep is the most practical and effective
control measure, especially when the threat is from an epidemic due to
a single serotype, such as the type 10 outbreak in Portugal and Spain
in the 1950s. However, multiple serotypes of virus are usual in
endemic situations (Hawkes, 1996), requiring multivalent vaccines
because bluetongue vaccines are serotype specific. However,
multivalent vaccines have attendant problems resulting from
interference between virus strains, differences in immunogenicity and
growth rates between various strains, as well as differences in the
response of individual animals to the components of such vaccines
(Verwoerd and Erasmus, 1994). Additionally, there is growing concern
by some scientists about the use of live attenuated bluetongue
vaccines. Murray and Eaton (1996) summarized these concerns into four
areas. These areas are: the known teratogenicity of attenuated virus
for the developing foetus; the propensity for vaccine virus to be
excreted in the semen of bulls and rams; the possibility that vaccine
virus will infect vectors and establish in the environment; and the
generation of recombinant progeny virus with novel genetic and
biological properties after the reassortment of genes from wild and
vaccine virus in the vaccinated animal or the vector.

Alternatives to live attenuated vaccines are described by Murray and
Eaton (1996). Vaccines based on inactivated whole virus, recombinant
virus-like particles or recombinant core-like particles all show
promise, but require more research. If a commercial product of any of
these is achieved, it will likely cost considerably more than a live
attenuated vaccine.

Live attenuated bluetongue vaccines have wide use in South Africa, and
more limited use in USA and a few other countries. The vaccines are
compromises between attenuation and immunogenicity and may have
residual pathogenicity for some vaccinated sheep. The application of
the vaccines has to be well managed. Colostral immunity in young sheep
can interfere with the development of active immunity to the vaccine
and breeding ewes and rams should be vaccinated before mating.

Back


Vaccines

See Table


Zoonoses and Food Safety

Bluetongue is not a zoonosis.

Back


Taxonomic Tree

Kingdom "Viruses" [01"VIR]

Family Reoviridae [41REOV]

Genus Orbivirus [51ORBI]


Back


Hosts Table

See Table


Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

See Table


Pathogen Characteristics

Bluetongue virus is an icosahedral-shaped particle consisting of a
segmented double-stranded RNA genome, encapsidated in a double-layered
protein coat. Removal of the outer protein layer activates a
viral-associated RNA polymerase which transcribes the ten genome
segments into 10 mRNAs which are in turn translated into at least
seven structural (VP1-VP7) and three non-structural (NS1-NS3) proteins
(Huismans and Dijk, 1990). The virions have a diameter of 68-70 nm,
comprising an outer capsid around a 54 nm core (Verwoerd and Erasmus,
1994).

The genome segments vary in size from 0.5 kDa to 2.7x10 3kDa, and the
viral proteins range in size from 25,000 to 144,000 daltons. VP2 and
VP5 form the outer capsid and the other five structural proteins are
in the core. VP2 is primarily responsible for the induction of
type-specific neutralizing antibodies and its variable sequence
results in the 24 recognized serotypes of bluetongue virus (Verwoerd
and Erasmus, 1994). The 24 serotypes are designated BLU 1- BLU 24.
Variations in other proteins of the virus are responsible for the
innumerable strains of the virus and for their varied biological
properties. This genetic diversity of bluetongue virus is a
consequence of both drift and reassortment of individual gene segments
(OIE, 1998).

Back


References


Abu Elzein EME, 1985. Bluetongue in camels: a serological survey of
the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) in the Sudan. Revue
d'‘levage et de M‘decine V‘t‘rinaire des Pays Tropicaux,
38(4):438-442; 13 ref.

Abu Elzein EME, Gameel AA, Al-Afaleq AI, Hassanein MM, 1992. Isolation
of a virus serologically related to the bluetongue group from an
outbreak of haemorrhagic disease among exotic deer in Saudi Arabia.
Veterinary Record, 131(19):439-441; 20 ref.

Afshar A, 1994. Bluetongue: laboratory diagnosis. Comparative
Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 17(3/4):221-242; 182
ref.

Afshar A, Gard GP, 1992. Working Team report on diagnostics.
Bluetongue, African horse sickness, and related orbiviruses:
Proceedings of the Second International Symposium., 990-993.

Akita GY, Ianconescu M, MacLachlan NJ, Osburn BI, Greene RT, 1994.
Bluetongue disease in dogs associated with contaminated vaccine.
Veterinary Record, 134(11):283; 5 ref.

Anderson EC, Rowe LW, 1998. The prevalence of antibody to the viruses
of bovine virus diarrhoea, bovine herpes virus 1, Rift Valley fever,
ephemeral fever and bluetongue and to Leptospira sp. in free-ranging
wildlife in Zimbabwe. Epidemiology and Infection, 121(2):441-449; 23
ref.

Apiwatnakorn B, Bura P, Pasavorakul O, 1996. Serological study for
bluetongue in Thailand. Bluetongue disease in Southeast Asia and the
Pacific: Proceedings of the First Southeast Asia and Pacific Regional
Bluetongue Symposium, Greenlake Hotel, Kunming, P.R. China, 22-24
August 1995., 20-22; 4 ref.

Aruni AW, Chandran NDJ, Ramadass P, Prabhakar TC, Lalitha PS,
Venkatesan RA, 1994. Comparative evaluation of AGPT and Dot ELISA for
the detection of blue tongue virus (BTV) antigens in sheep blood
samples. Indian Journal of Veterinary Research, 3(2):25-29; 9 ref.

Ayoub H, Singh KV, 1970. Identification of bluetongue in UAR (Egypt).
Bulletin of Epizootic Diseases of Africa, 18:123-136.

Barr‘ N, Eramus BJ, Gautier A, R²me A, Valin R, 1985. Bluetongue, a
new disease of sheep on Reunion (Indian Ocean). Revue d'‘levage et de
M‘decine V‘t‘rinaire des Pays Tropicaux, 38(1):16-21; 10 ref.

Barsoum GW, 1992. Bluetongue and African horse sickness situation in
Egypt. Bluetongue, African horse sickness, and related orbiviruses:
Proceedings of the Second International Symposium., 42-43.

Barzilai E, Shimshony A, 1985. Bluetongue: virological and
epidemiological observations in Israel. Bluetongue and related
orbiviruses, 545-553; [Progress in Clinical and Biological Research
volume 178]; 13 ref.

Bi YunLong, Li ChunDi, Li ShiYin, Qing Bo, Zhong Nan, Hu JinFeng, Yang
RuiLan, 1996. An epidemiological survey of bluetongue in Yunnan
Province, China. Bluetongue disease in Southeast Asia and the Pacific:
Proceedings of the First Southeast Asia and Pacific Regional
Bluetongue Symposium, Greenlake Hotel, Kunming, P.R. China, 22-24
August 1995., 51-56.

Bida SA, Eid FIA, 1974. Blue tongue of sheep in Northern Nigeria.
Journal of the Nigerian Veterinary Medical Association, 3(1):12-16.

Borden EC, Shope RE, Murphy FA, 1971. Physicochemical and
morphological relationships of some arthropod-borne viruses to
bluetongue virus --a new taxonomic group. Physicochemical and
serological studies. Journal of General Virology, 13:261-271.

Braverman Y, Galun R, 1973. The occurrence of culicoides in Israel
with reference to the incidence of bluetongue. Refuah veterinarith,
30(3-4):121-127.

Burgu I, Urman HK, Akca Y, Yonguc A, Mellor PS, Hamblin C, 1992.
Serologic survey and vector surveillance for bluetongue in southern
Turkey. Bluetongue, African horse sickness, and related orbiviruses:
Proceedings of the Second International Symposium., 168-174; 7 ref.

Burton RW, Littlejohns IR, 1988. The occurrence of antibody to
bluetongue virus in New South Wales. I. Statewide surveys of cattle
and sheep. II. Coastal region and age distribution surveys. Australian
Journal of Biological Sciences, 41(4):563-570, 571-578; 16 and 8 ref.

Butenko AM, 1996. Study of arbovirus circulation in Guinea.
Meditsinskaya Parazitologiya i Parazitarnye Bolezni, No. 2:40-45; 7
ref.

Castro RS, Leite RC, Abreu JJ, Lage AP, Ferraz IB, Lobato ZIP,
Balsamao SLE, 1992. Prevalence of antibodies to selected viruses in
bovine embryo donors and recipients from Brazil, and its implications
in international embryo trade. Tropical Animal Health and Production,
24(3):173-176; 20 ref.

Charton H, Prunaux O, Guignard A, 1991. Bluetongue in Reunion. Results
of a serological survey. Revue de M‘decine V‘t‘rinaire,
142(5):415-418; 7 ref.

Chen LiBiao, Zhong PeiYi, Zhao GuoMing, 1996. A serological survey of
bluetongue in cattle in Guangxi Province, China. Bluetongue disease in
Southeast Asia and the Pacific: Proceedings of the First Southeast
Asia and Pacific Regional Bluetongue Symposium, Greenlake Hotel,
Kunming, P.R. China, 22-24 August 1995., 76-77; 1 ref.

Clavijo A, Heckert RA, Dulac GC, Afshar A, 2000. Isolation and
identification of bluetongue virus. Journal of Virological Methods,
87:13-23.

Cunha RG, Souza DMde, Teixeira AC, 1988. Prevalence of antibodies to
bluetongue virus in the serum of goats and sheep in Rio de Janeiro
State. Arquivos Fluminenses de Medicine Veterinària, 3(2):53-56; 23
ref.

Dafni I, 1966. Bluetongue in Israel in the years 1964 and 1965.
Bulletin of the Office international des Epizooties, 66:319-327.

Davies FG, Mungai JN, Pini A, 1992. A new bluetongue virus serotype
isolated in Kenya. Veterinary Microbiology, 31(1):25-32; 6 ref.

Davies FG, Walker AR, 1974. The distribution in Kenya of bluetongue
virus and antibody, and the Culicoides vector. Journal of Hygiene,
72(2):265-272.

Della-Porta AJ, Sellers RF, Herniman KAJ et al., 1983. Serological
studies of Australian and Papua New Guinean cattle and Australian
sheep for the presence of antibodies against bluetongue group viruses.
Veterinary Microbiology, 8:147-162.

Dulac GC, Sterritt WG, Dubuc C, Afshar A, Myers DJ, Taylor EA,
Jamieson BR, Martin MW, 1992. Incursions of orbiviruses in Canada and
their serologic monitoring in the native animal population between
1962 and 1991. Bluetongue, African horse sickness, and related
orbiviruses: Proceedings of the Second International Symposium.,
120-127; 19 ref.

Ekue FN, Nfi AN, Tsangue P, Taylor WP, Gumm ID, 1985. Bluetongue in
exotic sheep in Cameroon. Tropical Animal Health and Production,
317(3):187-188; 2 ref.

Elfatih M, Mohammed H, Taylor WP, 1987. Infection with bluetongue and
related orbiviruses in the Sudan detected by the study of sentinel
calf herds. Epidemiology and Infection, 99(2):533-545; 25 ref.

Erasmus BJ, 1990. Bluetongue virus. Virus infections of ruminants.,
227-237; 31 ref.

Fayza AO, Abu-Elzein EME, Tag-Eldin MH, Hajer IE, 1990. Susceptibility
of Sudanese sheep to a bluetongue virus isolated from apparently
healthy cattle in the Sudan. Revue d'‘levage et de M‘decine
V‘t‘rinaire des Pays Tropicaux, 43(3):313-316; 25 ref.

Ferreira ML, Rosinha A, 1986. Preliminary analysis of data from
"operation buffalo" (Syncerus caffer) in Mozambique. Reposit»rio de
Trabalhos do Laborat»rio Nacional de InvestigaÎao Veterinària, 18:83,
85-100; 32 ref.

Formenty P, Domenech J, Lauginie F, Ouattara M, Diawara S, Raath JP,
Grobler D, Leforban Y, Angba A, 1994. Epidemiological study of
bluetongue in sheep, cattle and various wild animal species in the
CÂte d'Ivoire. Revue Scientifique et Technique - Office International
des ‘pizooties, 13(3):737-751; 12 ref.

Gambles RM, 1949. Bluetongue of sheep in Cyprus. Journal of
Comparative Pathology, 59:176-190.

Gard GP, 1987. Studies of bluetongue virulence and pathogenesis in
sheep carried out at Animal Virus Research Institute, Pirbright,
England, 1986., iv + 58pp.; [Technical Bulletin No. 103, ISSN
0158-2763].

Gard GP, 1996. Bluetongue viruses in the Asian and southeast Asian
region. Bluetongue disease in Southeast Asia and the Pacific:
Proceedings of the First Southeast Asia and Pacific Regional
Bluetongue Symposium, Greenlake Hotel, Kunming, P.R. China, 22-24
August 1995., 86-89; 19 ref.

Gibbs EPJ, Greiner EC, 1985. Serological observations on the
epidemiology of bluetongue virus infections in the Caribbean and
Florida. Bluetongue and related orbiviruses, 563-470; [Progress in
Clinical and Biological Research volume 178]; 14 ref.

Gibbs EPJ, Greiner EC, 1988. Bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic
disease. The arboviruses: epidemiology and ecology. Volume II., 39-70;
169 ref.

Gibbs EPJ, Greiner EC, 1994. The epidemiology of bluetongue.
Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases,
17(3/4):207-220; 47 ref.

Goossens B, Osaer S, Kora S, Chandler KJ, Petrie L, Thevasagayam JA,
Woolhouse T, Anderson J, 1998. Abattoir survey of sheep and goats in
The Gambia. Veterinary Record, 142(11):277-281; 27 ref.

Goto Y, Yamakawa M, Miura Y, 1996. An outbreak of bluetongue in cattle
in Japan. Bluetongue disease in Southeast Asia and the Pacific:
Proceedings of the First Southeast Asia and Pacific Regional
Bluetongue Symposium, Greenlake Hotel, Kunming, P.R. China, 22-24
August 1995., 42.

Guo ZhaiJun, Hao JuCai, Chen JianGuo, Li ZhiHua, Zhang KhaiLi, Hu
YuLing, Li Gen, Pu Long, 1996. Investigation of bluetongue disease in
the Bayannur Meng of Inner Mongolia. Bluetongue disease in Southeast
Asia and the Pacific: Proceedings of the First Southeast Asia and
Pacific Regional Bluetongue Symposium, Greenlake Hotel, Kunming, P.R.
China, 22-24 August 1995., 80-83; 8 ref.

Hafez SM, 1978. Serological survey of bluetongue in Iraq. Bulletin of
the Office international des Epizooties, 89(1-2):13-22.

Hafez SM, Ozawa Y, 1973. Serological survey of bluetongue in Egypt.
Bulletin of Epizootic Diseases of Africa, 21(3):297-304.

Hafez SM, Taylor WP, 1985. Serotypes of bluetongue virus present in
Saudi Arabia. Bluetongue and related orbiviruses, 531-537; [2 maps;
Progress in Clinical and Biological Research volume 178]; 12 ref.

Haresnape JM, Taylor WP, Lungu SAM, 1988. The epidemiology of
bluetongue in Malawi. Epidemiology and Infection, 100(3):493-499; 13
ref.

Hassan A, 1992a. Status of bluetongue in the Middle East and Asia.
Bluetongue, African horse sickness, and related orbiviruses:
Proceedings of the Second International Symposium., 38-41; 4 ref.

Hassan A, 1992b. Epidemiology of bluetongue virus infection in
Malaysia. Bluetongue, African horse sickness, and related orbiviruses:
Proceedings of the Second International Symposium., 155-161; [11 ref].

Hawkes RA, 1996. The global distribution of bluetongue. Bluetongue
disease in Southeast Asia and the Pacific: Proceedings of the First
Southeast Asia and Pacific Regional Bluetongue Symposium, Greenlake
Hotel, Kunming, P.R. China, 22-24 August 1995., 6-14; 69 ref.

Hilmy Zaki AH, 1965. Suspected bluetongue cases in UAR. Bulletin
Office international des Epizooties, 64:667-670.

Homan EJ, Gibbs EPJ, Walker JS, Walton TE, Yuill TM, Gonzàlez J,
Barreto CH, Greiner EC, 1992. Central American and Caribbean regional
bluetongue epidemiologic study: Antecedents and geographic review.
Bluetongue, African horse sickness, and related orbiviruses:
Proceedings of the Second International Symposium., 99-105; 34 ref.

Howell PG, 1960. A preliminary antigenic classification of strains of
bluetongue virus. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research,
28(3):357-363.

Howell PG, 1970. The antigenic classification and distribution of
naturally occurring strains of bluetongue virus. Journal of the South
African veterinary medicine Association, 41(3):215-223.

Huang Xiu, Pu ShuYing, Er ChengJun, Yang ChengYu, Wei WanLian, Cheng
XiengFu, Zhang ChongXin, Li XiaoCheng, Liu TianBin, 1996.
Epidemiological investigations and isolation of bluetongue virus in
Gansu Province, China. Bluetongue disease in Southeast Asia and the
Pacific: Proceedings of the First Southeast Asia and Pacific Regional
Bluetongue Symposium, Greenlake Hotel, Kunming, P.R. China, 22-24
August 1995., 65-66; 2 ref.

Huismans H, Dijk AAvan, 1990. Bluetongue virus structural components.
Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology, 162:21-41; 101 ref.

Hussein Hag A, Gallo C, Caracappa S, Vesco G, 1985. Serological survey
for antibodies to abortion-producing agents in zebu in Somalia. Atti
della Societö Italiana di Buiatria, 17:573-575; 4 ref.

Hyera JMK, Lyaruu VH, 1995. Preliminary evidence of the occurrence of
Blue-tongue (BT) virus infection in Tanzanian sheep and goats.
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 43(3):183-186; 18
ref.

Jain NC, Sharma R, Prasad G, 1986. Isolation of bluetongue virus from
sheep in India. Veterinary Record, 119(1):17-18; 6 ref.

Jain NC, Gupta Y, Prasad G, 1992. Bluetongue virus antibodies in
buffaloes and cattle in Haryana state of India. Bluetongue, African
horse sickness, and related orbiviruses: Proceedings of the Second
International Symposium., 188-192; 10 ref.

Jorgensen PH, Halliwell RW, Honhold N, 1989. Prevalence of serum
antibodies to bluetongue virus in indigenous goats in Zimbabwe
revealed by a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Tropical
Animal Health and Production, 21(1):58.

Kanhai GK, Silva Rda, 1981. A serological survey of bluetongue in
Mozambique. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa,
29(3):289-291.

Konstantinov OK, 1990. Ticks of the family Ixodidae as arbovirus
reservoirs in the Republic of Guinea. II. The arboviruses. Revue
d'‘levage et de M‘decine V‘t‘rinaire des Pays Tropicaux, 43(1):15-22;
13 ref.

Koumbati M, Mangana O, Nomikou K, Mellor PS, Papadopoulos O, 1999.
Duration of bluetongue viraemia and serological responses in
experimentally infected European breeds of sheep and goats. Veterinary
Microbiology, 64(4):277-285; 23 ref.

Kukarni DD, Bannalikar AS, Karpe AG, Gujar MB, Kulkarni MN, 1992.
Epidemiologic observations on bluetongue in sheep in the Marathwada
region of Maharashtra state in India. Bluetongue, African horse
sickness, and related orbiviruses: Proceedings of the Second
International Symposium., 193-196; 5 ref.

Lancelot R, Calvez D, Waller J, Kremer M, Sanite L, Lef‘vre PC, 1989.
Epidemiological observations on bluetongue in French Guiana.
‘pid‘miologie et Sant‘ Animale, No. 15:103-116; 13 ref.

Lef²vre PC, Calvez D, 1986. Bluetongue in intertropical Africa:
influence of ecological factors on the prevalence of infection. Revue
d'‘levage et de M‘decine V‘t‘rinaire des Pays Tropicaux,
39(3/4):263-268; 19 ref.

Lefevre PC, Taylor WP, 1983. Epidemiological situation of bluetongue
in Senegal. Revue d'‘levage et de M‘decine V‘t‘rinaire des Pays
Tropicaux, 36(3):241-245; 8 ref.

Lei HuaiMin, Xu JianMing, He ChongLi, Shao JiangLiang, Shi XiaYun,
1996. The isolation and characterisation of bluetongue virus and its
epidemiology in Shanxi Province, China. Bluetongue disease in
Southeast Asia and the Pacific: Proceedings of the First Southeast
Asia and Pacific Regional Bluetongue Symposium, Greenlake Hotel,
Kunming, P.R. China, 22-24 August 1995., 72-75.

MacLachlan NJ, 1994. The pathogenesis and immunology of bluetongue
virus infection of ruminants. Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and
Infectious Diseases, 17(3/4):197-206; 59 ref.

Maiga S, Sarr J, 1992. Epidemiological survey of the main respiratory
viruses of small ruminants in Mali. Revue d'‘levage et de M‘decine
V‘t‘rinaire des Pays Tropicaux, 45(1):15-17; 10 ref.

Mariner JC, Sama S, Mamini C, Baare K, Stem C, Yedloutschnig RJ, Mebus
CA, Sollod AE, 1989. Serosurvey of Sahelian cattle for evidence of
epizootic disease. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 7(3):163-171; 30
ref.

Mehrotra ML, 1992. Studies on bluetongue in India: distribution and
isolation of viruses. Bluetongue, African horse sickness, and related
orbiviruses: Proceedings of the Second International Symposium.,
181-187; 15 ref.

Mellor PS, 1990. The replication of bluetongue virus in Culicoides
vectors. Bluetongue viruses., 143-161; [In Current Topics in
Microbiology and Immunology, 162]; 101 ref.

Mellor PS, Boorman J, Baylis M, 2000. Culicoides biting midges: their
role as arbovirus vectors. Annual Review of Entomology, 45:307-340.

Melo CB, Oliveira AM, Azevedo EO et al., 2000. Antibodies to
bluetongue virus in cattle of Paraiba State, Brazil. Arquivo
Brasileiro De Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia, 52(1):19-20.

Mo ReGen, Ao FuLai, Si Qin, Zhao XinLi, 1996. Serological survey of
bluetongue in sheep and cattle in Inner Mongolia. Bluetongue disease
in Southeast Asia and the Pacific: Proceedings of the First Southeast
Asia and Pacific Regional Bluetongue Symposium, Greenlake Hotel,
Kunming, P.R. China, 22-24 August 1995., 78-79; 2 ref.

Moore DL, Kemp GE, 1974. Bluetongue and related viruses in Ibadan,
Nigeria: Serologic studies of domestic and wild animals. American
Journal of Veterinary Research, 35(8):1115-1120.

Muller MJ, Standfast HA, St George TD, Cybinski DH, 1982. Culicoides
brevitarsis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) as a vector of arboviruses in
Australia. In: St George TD, Kay BH, eds. Arbovirus Research in
Australia. Proceedings of the Third Symposium. Brisbane, Australia:
CSIRO-QIMR, 43-49.

Murray PK, Eaton BT, 1996. Vaccines for bluetongue. Australian
Veterinary Journal, 73(6):207-210; 33 ref.

Mushi EZ, Diteko T, Wibberley G, Kupe D, 1992. Precipitating
antibodies to bluetongue virus in Botswana. Bulletin of Animal Health
and Production in Africa, 40(2):117; 2 ref.

Mweene AS, Pandey GS, Sinyangwe P, Nambota A, Samui K, Kida H, 1996.
Viral diseases of livestock in Zambia. Japanese Journal of Veterinary
Research, 44(2):89-105; 77 ref.

Nevill EM, Erasmus BJ, Venter GJ, 1992. A six-year survey of viruses
associated with Culicoides biting midges throughout South Africa
(Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Bluetongue, African horse sickness, and
related orbiviruses: Proceedings of the Second International
Symposium., 314-319; 5 ref.

Obi TU, Taylor WP, Ojo MO, 1983. Prevalence of bluetongue virus
precipitating antibodies in sheep and goats in Southern Nigeria.
Tropical Veterinarian, 1(4):205-208; 9 ref.

Office International des Epizooties, 1998. Supporting document for the
OIE International Animal Health Code chapter 2.1.9 on bluetongue. OIE
Ad hoc working group on bluetongue, September 1998.

Office International des Epizooties, 1999. World Animal Health in
1999. Paris, France: OIE.

Papadopoulos O, 1992. Bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease in
Europe and the European community. Bluetongue, African horse sickness,
and related orbiviruses: Proceedings of the Second International
Symposium., 34-37; 12 ref.

Pearson JE, Gustafson GA, Shafer AL, Alstad AD, 1992. Distribution of
bluetongue in the United States. Bluetongue, African horse sickness,
and related orbiviruses: Proceedings of the Second International
Symposium., 128-139; 25 ref.

P‘rez BM, Siger Jde, Avila JP, Romàn R, Infante G, 1995. Prevalence of
antibodies to the bluetongue virus in cattle herds in the county of La
Canada de Urdaneta, Zulia State, Venezuela. Revista Cientifica,
Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, Universidad del Zulia, 5(2):77-85;
47 ref.

Pillai CP, 1961. Suspected cases of bluetongue in sheep. The Sudan
Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry. 2(1):47-50.

Prasad G, Jain NC, Mahajan NK, Vasudevan B, 1987. Prevalence of
bluetongue-precipitating antibodies in different domestic animals.
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, 57(6):522-524; 9 ref.

Price DA, Hardy WT, 1954. Isolation of the bluetongue virus from Texas
sheep - Culicoides shown to be a vector. Journal of the American
Veterinary Medical Association, 124(925):255-258.

Puana I, 1996. Bluetongue virus status in Papua New Guinea. Bluetongue
disease in Southeast Asia and the Pacific: Proceedings of the First
Southeast Asia and Pacific Regional Bluetongue Symposium, Greenlake
Hotel, Kunming, P.R. China, 22-24 August 1995., 41.

Qin QiYing, Tai ZhengGuo, Wang LiJin, Luo ZhengQi, Hu Jun, Lin
HanLiang, 1996. Bluetongue epidemiological survey and virus isolation
in Xinjiang, China. Bluetongue disease in Southeast Asia and the
Pacific: Proceedings of the First Southeast Asia and Pacific Regional
Bluetongue Symposium, Greenlake Hotel, Kunming, P.R. China, 22-24
August 1995., 67-71; 2 ref.

Roberts DH, 1990. Bluetongue: a review. State Veterinary Journal,
44(124):66-80; 40 ref.

Rosadio RH, Evermann JF, DeMartini JC, 1984. A preliminary serological
survey of viral antibodies in Peruvian sheep. Veterinary Microbiology,
10(1):91-96; 26 ref.

Sellers RF, 1981. Bluetongue and related diseases. In: Gibbs EPJ ed.
Virus Diseases of Food Animals. London, UK: Academic Press, 567-584.

Sendow I, Young P, Ronohardjo P, 1986. Serological studies of
bluetongue virus in Indonesia. Arbovirus research in Australia.
Proceedings Fourth Symposium May 6-9, 1986, Brisbane, Australia,
271-273; 10 ref.

Sendow I, Daniels P, Soleha E, Hunt N, Ronohardjo P, 1991. Isolation
of bluetongue viral serotypes 7 and 9 from healthy sentinel cattle in
West Java, Indonesia. Australian Veterinary Journal, 68(12):405-406;
10 ref.

Sharifah SH, Ali MA, Gard GP, Polkinghorne IG, 1995. Isolation of
multiple serotypes of bluetongue virus from sentinel livestock in
Malaysia. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 27(1):37-42; 12 ref.

Sharma SN, Oberoi MS, Sodhi SS, Baxi KK, 1981. Bluetongue virus
precipitating antibodies in dairy animals in the Punjab. Tropical
Animal Health and Production, 13(4):193.

Shimshony A, Barzilai E, Savir D, Davidson M, 1988. Epidemiology and
control of bluetongue disease in Israel. Revue Scientifique et
Technique, Office International des ‘pizooties, 7(2):311-329; 26 ref.

Silva JAda, Machado TMM, Modena CM, Viana FC, Moreira EC, Abreu VVde,
1988. Frequency of foot and mouth disease, bluetongue and bovine
oncovirus antibodies in goats under different production systems in
Minas Gerais State. Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinària e
Zootecnia, 40(6):393-403; 17 ref.

Singer RS, MacLachlan NJ, Carpenter TE, 2001. Maximal predicted
duration of viremia in bluetongue virus-infected cattle. Journal of
Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 13:43-49.

Soliman AM, Hafez SM, Ozawa Y, 1972. Recent epizootics of bluetongue
in Egypt. Bulletin of Epizootic Diseases of Africa, 20:105-112.

Sreenivasulu D, Rao MVS, Gard GP, 1999. Isolation of bluetongue virus
serotype 2 from native sheep in India. Veterinary Record,
144(16):452-453; 12 ref.

Stanley MJ, 1990. Prevalence of bluetongue precipitating antibodies in
domesticated animals in Yemen Arab Republic. Tropical Animal Health
and Production, 22(3):163-164; 8 ref.

Tamayo R, Schoebitz R, Alonso O, Wenzel J, 1985. First report of
bluetongue antibody in Chile. Bluetongue and related orbiviruses,
555-558; [Progress in Clinical and Biological Research volume 178].

Taylor WP, Sellers RF, Gumm ID, Herniman KAJ, Owen L, 1985. Bluetongue
epidemiology in the Middle East. Bluetongue and related orbiviruses,
527-530; [4 maps; Progress in Clinical and Biological Research volume
178]; 3 ref.

Taylor WP, McCausland A, 1976. Studies with bluetongue virus in
Nigeria. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 8:169-173.

Thompson LH, Mo CL, Oviedo MT, Homan EJ, 1992. Prevalence and
incidence of bluetongue viruses in the Caribbean basin: serologic and
virologic findings. Bluetongue, African horse sickness, and related
orbiviruses: Proceedings of the Second International Symposium.,
106-113; 11 ref.

Doyle KA, 1992. An overview and perspective on orbivirus disease
prevalence and occurrence of vectors in Australia and Oceania.
Bluetongue, African horse sickness, and related orbiviruses:
Proceedings of the Second International Symposium., 44-57; 29 ref.

Johnson BG, 1992. An overview and perspective on orbivirus disease
prevalence and occurrence of vectors in North America. Bluetongue,
African horse sickness, and related orbiviruses: Proceedings of the
Second International Symposium., 58-61; 5 ref.

Verwoerd DW, Erasmus BJ, 1994. Bluetongue. In: Coetzer JAW, Thomson
GR, Tustin RC, eds. Infectious Diseases of Livestock with special
reference to Southern Africa. Cape Town, South Africa: Oxford
University Press, 443-459.

Viegas de Abreu VL, 1983. Prevalence of reactions to the
immunodiffusion test for bluetongue antibodies among cattle and
buffaloes in northern Brazil. [Abstract of thesis]. Arquivo Brasileiro
de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia, 35(5):759-760.

Ward MP, Flanagan M, Baldock FC, 1995. Infection of cattle Queensland
with bluetongue viruses: 1. prevalence of antibodies. Australian
Veterinary Journal, 72(5):182-186; 30 ref.

Weitzman GL, Stem EC, Gilfillan RS, Lindenmayer JM, 1991. Preliminary
serological survey for bluetongue and toxoplasmosis in sheep in Niger.
Tropical Animal Health and Production, 23(4):258; 2 ref.

Zhang NianZu, Li ZhiHua, Zhang KhaiLi, Hu YuLing, Li Gen, Peng KeGao,
Li HuaChun, Zhang FuQiang, Ben Jin, Li XinRong, Zhou FuZhong, Liu Gui,
1996. Bluetongue history, serology and virus isolation in China.
Bluetongue disease in Southeast Asia and the Pacific: Proceedings of
the First Southeast Asia and Pacific Regional Bluetongue Symposium,
Greenlake Hotel, Kunming, P.R. China, 22-24 August 1995., 43-50; 26
ref.

Zhou WeiHan, 1995. An epidemiological investigation of bluetongue in
Anhui Province [China]. Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine,
China, 27(1):3-5; 9 ref.

Zhou WeiHan, 1996. An epidemiological study of bluetongue in Anhui
Province, China. Bluetongue disease in Southeast Asia and the Pacific:
Proceedings of the First Southeast Asia and Pacific Regional
Bluetongue Symposium, Greenlake Hotel, Kunming, P.R. China, 22-24
August 1995., 61-64.

Zhu ChangGui, Li YaMin, Shao CuiLi, Xu ShiBai, Zheng TianRan, 1996.
Epidemiological investigations and control of bluetongue disease in
Jiangsu Province, China. Bluetongue disease in Southeast Asia and the
Pacific: Proceedings of the First Southeast Asia and Pacific Regional
Bluetongue Symposium, Greenlake Hotel, Kunming, P.R. China, 22-24
August 1995., 57-60.

Huismans H, Dijk AAvan, 1990. Bluetongue virus structural components.
Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology, 162:21-41; 101 ref.

Office International des Epizooties, 1998. Supporting document for the
OIE International Animal Health Code chapter 2.1.9 on bluetongue. OIE
Ad hoc working group on bluetongue, September 1998.

Verwoerd DW, Erasmus BJ, 1994. Bluetongue. In: Coetzer JAW, Thomson
GR, Tustin RC, eds. Infectious Diseases of Livestock with special
reference to Southern Africa. Cape Town, South Africa: Oxford
University Press, 443-459.





Gloria
2007-09-16 06:19:08 EST
On Sun, 16 Sep 2007 11:16:58 +0100, Old Codger
<*r@EuroSeptic.Con> wrote:

>Yet another virus affecting livestock, and the food you eat.
>
>Just what is in out meat?
>
>Where do you think these infected animals really end up? In your
>burger, Sunday roast etc.
>
>

Thanks for that Old Codger. I guess the question is, Do WE feel lucky,
if not for ourselves how about what we feed our kids?

Glad I'm veggie.

>ANIMAL HEALTHDISEASE CARDS
>
>Bluetongue
>
>
>Names
>Pathogen(s)
>
>Preferred Name : Bluetongue virus
>
>Disease/Parasitosis
>
>Preferred Name : Bluetongue
>
>Common Names :
>
>Spanish: Lengua azul
>
>French: Fievre catarrhale du mouton
>
>
>
>Overview
>
>Bluetongue virus is an arbovirus (arthropod borne) that naturally
>infects domestic and wild ruminants, camelids and some other
>herbivores such as elephants. Bluetongue virus is transmitted by
>several species of Culicoides (biting midges). Bluetongue is almost
>exclusively a disease of sheep, although white-tailed deer, pronghorn
>and desert bighorn sheep may suffer disease in North America. In
>cattle and goats clinical disease is rare, and, when present, is much
>milder than in sheep (Verwoerd and Erasmus, 1994).
>
>Bluetongue can cause spectacular disease outbreaks and is placed in
>the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) List A disease category.
>Affected sheep may die after acute or chronic disease, or may recover
>with weight loss and/or wool breaks.
>
>Bluetongue was first described in South Africa after Merino sheep from
>Europe were introduced in the late eighteenth century (Verwoerd and
>Erasmus, 1994). The disease was considered confined to South Africa
>and for many years research efforts on the virus and the disease were
>exclusively undertaken in that country, mostly at the Onderstepoort
>Veterinary Institute. The viral nature of the disease was established,
>as was its insect spread and multiple virus serotypes (Howell, 1960;
>1970). There are now 24 serotypes of bluetongue virus recognized
>worldwide.
>
>Bluetongue virus is the type species of the genus orbivirus in the
>family Reoviridae. Initially the virus was classified as an arbovirus
>but it appeared to share some properties with reoviruses and was
>provisionally classified as a reovirus. However, bluetongue virus
>differs in some respects from reoviruses and, along with a number of
>other related viruses, was classified in a separate genus by Borden et
>al. (1971).
>
>
>Back
>
>
>Animals Affected Table
>
>See Table
>
>
>Animals Affected
>
>Bluetongue is an arbovirus, infecting vertebrates and invertebrates
>cyclically.
>
>Bluetongue virus naturally infects domestic and wild ruminants,
>camelids and some other herbivores such as elephants. Historically,
>the primary cycle may have involved species of African antelope, but
>this role has now been taken over by cattle (Erasmus, 1990).
>
>Midges of the genus Culicoides act as biological vectors of bluetongue
>virus. Of the approximately 1400 species of Culicoides world-wide,
>less than 20 are considered actual or possible vectors (OIE, 1998;
>Mellor, 1990). The most well-studied vector species are C. variipennis
>and C. insignis in the USA, C. fulvus, C. wadai, C. actoni and C.
>brevitarsis in Australia, and C. imicola in Africa and the Middle East
>(Erasmus, 1990). It is possible that additional vector species will be
>identified in countries such as China and Bulgaria where bluetongue
>has been recognized only recently.
>
>Back
>
>
>Epidemiology
>
>Bluetongue virus is an arbovirus that has evolved a life cycle where
>alternate cycles of virus replication in vertebrate and invertebrate
>hosts are essential for virus persistence. There is no evidence of
>vertical transmission of the virus in the invertebrate host.
>Observations on the placental transmission of virus in the vertebrate
>host are contradictory (Roberts, 1990) and therefore any vertical
>transmission in vertebrates is considered to be of no consequence to
>virus ecology. There is little evidence of direct or indirect contact
>transmission in either host, other than rare instances of seminal
>transmission in vertebrates (OIE, 1998). The virus cannot be spread by
>meat, milk or dairy products. Cattle are the primary vertebrate hosts
>(Erasmus, 1990) and a small number of species of Culicoides midges are
>the only insect hosts (Mellor, 1990). The rare recovery of bluetongue
>virus from other insects is of no ecological significance.
>
>The insect vectors of bluetongue virus breed in moist conditions in a
>variety of habitats, particularly damp, muddy areas and in faecal and
>plant matter. They have nocturnal feeding habits, preferring still,
>warm conditions, pastures and open pens. At least some
>speciesØpreferentially feed on cattle. Females take a blood meal prior
>to egg laying, feed at roughly 4-day intervals and live for aboutØ2
>toØ3 weeks. The eggs hatch inØ2 toØ3 days and depending on the
>temperature, the larval stage lasts 12 to 16 days. Adults emergeØ2
>toØ3 days after pupation and take a blood mealØ1 day later and they
>also mate during this time (Roberts, 1990). The activities of the
>midge are influenced by temperature and the optimum lies between 13o
>and 35oC (Sellers, 1981).
>
>As summarized by Gibbs and Greiner (1994), bluetongue is a common,
>generally subclinical infection of ruminants throughout the tropics
>and subtropics, within a number of separate ecosystems. Seasonal
>incursions of the virus into more temperate latitudes, sometimes
>accompanied by disease, may occur under favourable climatic conditions
>at certain key locations. There is evidence that infected midges are
>carried on the wind for long distances (Sellers, 1981). It has been
>postulated that the major epidemics of bluetongue, in regions where
>disease occurs only sporadically, can often be traced to windborne
>carriage of infected Culicoides from distant areas (Gibbs and Greiner,
>1988).
>
>Critical in the understanding of the epidemiology of bluetongue is
>knowledge of the virus competence of the Culicoides species in
>different ecosystems, but vector competency research is a very
>specialised discipline. Not only may different populations of a
>species of midge have varying susceptibilities to a strain of virus,
>but a single strain of the vector may have differing susceptibility to
>different virus serotypes (Mellor, 1990).
>
>Competent midges may be infected when biting viraemic vertebrates. The
>chance of infection depends in part on the genotype of the midge, the
>strain of virus, the level of viraemia, and environmental factors
>(Mellor et al., 2000). The extrinsic incubation period (the period
>between feeding on infected blood and the appearance of virus in the
>saliva of the midge) is 1-2 weeks.
>
>The colonised USA vector, C. variipennis, is able to ingest
>approximately 10-4ml of blood (Mellor, 1990), whereas the most widely
>distributed Australian vector, C. brevitarsis, has a blood meal volume
>of around 10-4.5ml (Muller et al., 1982). Therefore viraemia must be
>of the order of 104 infectious units of virus per ml or greater for
>feeding midges to have much chance of infection. OIE (1998) summarized
>reported peak levels of viraemia, in virus infectious units per ml of
>blood, as 104.4 to 106.3 for cattle, 106.4 to 108.0 for sheep and
>106.0 for goats, though levels reached are mostly much lower. Viraemia
>peaks in the first two weeks after infection, before the appearance of
>serum antibody. Virus titres then drop rapidly and are very low if
>infections persist for a month or more.
>
>The duration of viraemia in the infected vertebrate is an important
>factor in the transmission of bluetongue virus to biting, competent
>midges. Bluetongue is no longer considered a persistent infection of
>ruminants, especially cattle (MacLachlan, 1994). Singer et al. (2001)
>analyzed a large volume of existing data on the length of bluetongue
>viraemia of cattle and concluded that this was equal to or less than 9
>weeks in >99% of adults. OIE (1998) report the viraemia of most cattle
>as less than 4 weeks with fewer than 1% exceeding 8 weeks. The maximum
>viraemia reported for sheep is 54 days (Koumbati et al., 1999), but
>this is exceptional.
>
>Back
>
>
>Distribution Table
>
>See Table
>
>
>Distribution
>
>In 1943 bluetongue disease was reported in Cyprus, and outbreaks were
>subsequently reported in Israel, the USA, Portugal, Spain, Pakistan
>and India (Verwoerd and Erasmus, 1994). Over the past 30 years
>evidence of regular virus activity, but not necessarily disease, has
>been found in most countries in the tropics and subtropics with
>substantial populations of ruminants. The virus may be found in a
>geographic band between latitudes 40oN and 35oS. The presence of
>bluetongue virus within this band, whether year round or seasonal,
>depends on the climatic zone type. Genetic studies (topotyping)
>indicate that the virus exists in discrete, stable ecosystems,
>probably the result of co-evolution of different strains of the virus
>and vectors (OIE, 1998). Numerous countries in the tropics and
>subtropics have bluetongue virus unknowingly circulating subclinically
>in cattle and other ruminants. A properly designed serological survey
>would reveal the presence of the virus. The virus is endemic in areas
>of some countries, being more or less continuously active. Depending
>on climatic factors affecting the vector, in most years the virus will
>seasonally extend to adjacent areas (Gibbs and Greiner, 1988). In
>exceptionally favourable years the virus will spread even further,
>such as to Portugal and Spain in 1956, to British Columbia in 1988, to
>Bulgaria, continental Greece and Tunisia in 1999 and to Algeria,
>Sardinia, Corsica, Majorca, Minorca, Sicily and continental Italy in
>2000.
>
>Back
>
>
>Economic Importance and Impact
>
>Bluetongue can be a costly infection for several reasons. The clinical
>disease in sheep can be severe, resulting in deaths, weight loss and
>wool break. In some countries where disease is endemic (South Africa
>and some States of the USA), vaccination is a recurring cost. However
>the greater cost of bluetongue is to infected countries which export
>live animals, germplasm and some animal products such as foetal calf
>serum. Here the presence of bluetongue virus, even if wholly
>subclinical, causes loss of trade due to restrictions on the source of
>animals, and the costs of health testing. It has been estimated that
>in the late 1970s, the ban on US cattle semen exports resulted in an
>annual loss of $24 million (Gibbs and Greiner, 1988).
>
>Bluetongue is included in the OIE List A diseases, largely because of
>dramatic outbreaks of disease in Cyprus in 1943 and Portugal and Spain
>in 1956. The Cyprus outbreak was due to a particularly virulent strain
>of the virus causing between 60 and 70% losses in some flocks
>(Gambles, 1949). The Iberian outbreaks were also spectacular. Within
>the firstØ4 months 46,000 sheep had died in Portugal and 133,000 in
>Spain (Roberts, 1990). This listing of bluetongue in the most serious
>of animal diseases exacerbates the trade sensitivity and associated
>costs to countries with the infection, and has been challenged by some
>(Gibbs and Greiner, 1994).
>
>Back
>
>
>Disease Systems
>
>See Table
>
>
>Disease Course
>
>Natural bluetongue infection is usually subclinical. Bluetongue
>disease is the result of a complex interaction between the animal, the
>virus and the environment. Bluetongue is almost exclusively a disease
>of sheep, with European breeds most susceptible. Most breeds of sheep,
>especially in regions where the virus is endemic, are resistant to
>disease though there is increasing information that native breeds in
>India and China can be clinically affected. Outbreaks of disease
>typically occur either when susceptible sheep are introduced to
>endemic areas, or when infected midges carry the virus from endemic
>regions to adjacent areas containing populations of
>immunologically-na¨ve, susceptible sheep.
>
>Many strains of bluetongue virus appear incapable of causing
>significant disease following natural or experimental infection of
>breeds of sheep known to be susceptible to disease. Experimental
>reproduction of disease can be inconsistent, except with the most
>virulent strains of virus. This could be because exposure of sunlight
>can have a marked influence on the severity of disease (Erasmus,
>1990). Passage of virulent field virus in cell cultures rapidly
>reduces virus virulence (Gard, 1987).
>
>After introduction by the bite of an infected midge, bluetongue virus
>first replicates in the local lymph nodes and subsequently induces a
>primary viraemia which seeds other lymph nodes, spleen, lung and
>vascular endothelium (Gibbs and Greiner, 1988). Circulating virus
>associates with blood cells, mostly with erythrocytes and platelets,
>though virus associated with mononuclear cells is critical for
>dissemination of virus throughout the animal. Later in viraemia, the
>virus is exclusively associated with erythrocytes (MacLachlan, 1994).
>Virus particles appear to be sequestered in invaginations of the
>erythrocyte membrane, allowing prolonged viraemia in the presence of
>neutralizing antibodies (OIE, 1998).
>
>Fever is usual but not invariable. Other common clinical signs include
>oedema (of lips, nose, face, submandibulum, eyelids and sometimes
>ears), congestion (of mouth, nose, nasal cavity, conjunctiva, skin and
>coronary bands), lameness and depression. The oedema of lips and nose
>can give the sheep a 'monkey-face' appearance. There is frequently a
>serous nasal discharge, later becoming mucopurulent. The congestion of
>the nose and nasal cavity produces a 'sore muzzle' effect, the term
>used to describe the disease seen in sheep in the USA before its
>bluetongue virus aetiology was realized. The mouth is sore and the
>sheep may champ to produce a frothy oral discharge. Sheep are not
>strictly anorexic, but eat less because of oral soreness and will hold
>food in their mouths to soften it before chewing. Affected sheep
>occasionally have swollen, congested, cyanotic tongues. Lameness, due
>to coronary band congestion, may occur early in the disease and
>lameness or torticollis, as a result of skeletal muscle damage, may
>occur later (OIE, 1998).
>
>If fever occurs, sheep are first pyrexic 4-10 days after infection.
>The other clinical signs soon follow with acute deaths occurring
>during the second week following infection. Many of these deaths are
>the result of pulmonary oedema and/or cardiac insufficiency. Further
>sheep may die from chronic disease 3 to 5 weeks after infection with
>bacterial complications, especially pasteurellosis. Under-nutrition
>arising from lameness and depression may be contributing factors. The
>production loss due to bluetongue may be the result of deaths,
>unthriftiness during prolonged convalescence, wool breaks and possibly
>reproductive wastage (OIE, 1998).
>
>Although the frequency of infection of cattle with bluetongue virus is
>generally higher than in sheep, disease in cattle is rare. Clinical
>infection is actually a hypersensitivity reaction, including fever,
>stiffness or lameness and increased respiratory rate. There may be
>lacrimation and increased salivation. The skin of the muzzle is often
>inflamed, and may crack and peel. The lips and tongue may be swollen,
>with ulcers on the oral mucosa. Similarly, the skin of the neck,
>flanks, perineum, and teats may be affected (Erasmus, 1990).
>
>Hydranencephaly and congenital deformities may develop in bovine and
>sheep foetuses of bluetongue virus-infected dams, the severity of
>lesions depending on the stage of gestation. Foetuses seem to be most
>susceptible during the period of active brain development (Erasmus,
>1990). It is clear that cell culture-adapted virus more readily
>crosses the placenta than unadapted virus, suggesting that the
>occasional instances of natural virus-induced teratogenesis may be due
>to strains of virus derived from live virus vaccines (MacLachlan,
>1994).
>
>Bluetongue in dogs associated with use of a contaminated vaccine was
>reported by Akita et al. (1994). Only pregnant bitches were affected.
>
>
>Back
>
>
>Pathology
>
>All of the pathology of bluetongue can be assigned to vascular
>endothelial damage resulting in changes to capillary permeability and
>fragility, with subsequent disseminated intravascular coagulation and
>necrosis of tissues supplied by damaged capillaries. These changes
>result in oedema, congestion, haemorrhage, inflammation and necrosis.
>
>In animals dying acutely, the oral mucosa is hyperaemic and petechiae
>or ecchymoses may be present. Excoriations may be in areas subject to
>mechanical abrasion; the edges of lips, dental pad, tongue and cheeks
>opposite the molar teeth. There may be hyperaemia in the
>fore-stomachs. The lungs may be hyperaemic with severe alveolar and
>interstitial oedema, froth in the bronchi, and excess fluid in the
>thoracic cavity. The pericardial sac may have petechiae and excess
>fluid. A variable sized haemorrhage in the tunica media near the base
>of the pulmonary artery is almost pathognomonic. Subepicardial and
>subendothelial haemorrhages, particularly involving the left
>ventricle, are common. Generalized damage to the cardiovascular system
>is evidenced by widespread hyperaemia, oedema and haemorrhage
>(Erasmus, 1990).
>
>Animals that die later than 14 days after infection often show
>dramatic degeneration and necrosis of the skeletal musculature.
>Muscles lose pigmentation and the inter-muscular fasciae are
>infiltrated with a clear gelatinous fluid (Erasmus, 1990).
>
>Microscopic examination of mucosal lesions shows mononuclear cell
>infiltration, degeneration and necrosis of epithelial cells in which
>large acidophilic intra-cytoplasmic masses accumulate. Affected
>muscles have oedema, haemorrhage, hyaline degeneration and necrosis.
>Infiltration by neutrophils, macrophages and lymphocytes is present in
>acute cases (Verwoerd and Erasmus, 1994).
>
>Back
>
>
>Symptoms Table
>
>See Table
>
>
>Diagnosis
>
>There is aØsummary of recommended procedures for bluetongue serology
>and virus isolation (Afshar and Gard, 1995), while Afshar (1994)
>provides details of the diagnosis methods. The isolation and
>identification of bluetongue virus is also described in detail by
>Clavijo et al. (2000).
>
>The recommended tests for the detection of bluetongue
>serogroup-specific antibodies are agar-gel-immunodiffusion and
>competitive ELISA, with the latter becoming more popular because of
>its greater accuracy and adaptation to conventional laboratory rapid
>testing and reading technology. The recommended test for the detection
>of serotype-specific antibodies is the virus neutralization test.
>
>Bluetongue virus is usually isolated from tissues, or preferably red
>blood cells washed free of any antibody, in embryonated chicken eggs.
>Bluetongue virus may be detected in the inoculated eggs by antigen or
>nucleic acid detection procedures or by passage to susceptible cell
>cultures. Cell culture isolates are identified as bluetongue viruses
>by tests based on group-specific antibodies and using fluorescent or
>enzyme conjugates. Isolates placed in the bluetongue serogroup are
>typed by virus neutralization tests using serotype-specific antisera.
>
>Differential diagnosis should include contagious ecthyma, foot and
>mouth disease, photosensitization, pneumonia, polyarthritis, footrot,
>foot abscesses, plant poisonings, peste des petits ruminants,
>coneurosis and epizootic haemorrhagic disease of deer.
>
>
>Back
>
>
>Disease Treatment Table
>
>No data
>
>Back
>
>
>Disease Treatment
>
>There is no treatment for bluetongue disease. The recovery of affected
>animals will be aided by the provision of shade, water, feed and
>shelter.
>
>Back
>
>
>Disease Prevention and Control
>
>Bluetongue is a disease of sheep, but cattle are the principal
>vertebrate reservoirs of the virus. Once established, it is impossible
>to actively eradicate bluetongue virus. The virus will circulate,
>generally subclinically, in cattle and other ruminants, and in midges.
>In countries marginally suitable for virus persistence, the virus may
>be maintained for several years before dying out. Bluetongue entered
>Portugal and Spain in 1956 and appears to have persisted in Portugal
>until 1959 and in Spain until 1960 (Roberts, 1990). In seasonally
>infected areas, the onset of cold weather will reduce midge
>populations to ineffective levels and cause the virus to retreat to
>regions of year-round activity.
>
>The bluetongue virus cycle could be interrupted by the immunization of
>vertebrate hosts, especially cattle, removal of vectors or prevention
>of vector attack. Understandably, the immunization of animals that
>will not suffer from the disease is not acceptable to farmers. The
>control of midges by the application of insecticides and larvicides to
>insect resting and breeding sites, or systemically to cattle, has not
>been fully investigated but is likely to have local success only.
>Protecting sheep from exposure to midges is a more practical approach
>and can be achieved by moving sheep from insect resting and breeding
>sites, stabling animals overnight or the use of insect repellents.
>Mixing cattle with sheep will draw vectors with a host preference for
>cattle from sheep, but may raise the virus infection level of the
>midge population.
>
>Prophylactic immunization of sheep is the most practical and effective
>control measure, especially when the threat is from an epidemic due to
>a single serotype, such as the type 10 outbreak in Portugal and Spain
>in the 1950s. However, multiple serotypes of virus are usual in
>endemic situations (Hawkes, 1996), requiring multivalent vaccines
>because bluetongue vaccines are serotype specific. However,
>multivalent vaccines have attendant problems resulting from
>interference between virus strains, differences in immunogenicity and
>growth rates between various strains, as well as differences in the
>response of individual animals to the components of such vaccines
>(Verwoerd and Erasmus, 1994). Additionally, there is growing concern
>by some scientists about the use of live attenuated bluetongue
>vaccines. Murray and Eaton (1996) summarized these concerns into four
>areas. These areas are: the known teratogenicity of attenuated virus
>for the developing foetus; the propensity for vaccine virus to be
>excreted in the semen of bulls and rams; the possibility that vaccine
>virus will infect vectors and establish in the environment; and the
>generation of recombinant progeny virus with novel genetic and
>biological properties after the reassortment of genes from wild and
>vaccine virus in the vaccinated animal or the vector.
>
>Alternatives to live attenuated vaccines are described by Murray and
>Eaton (1996). Vaccines based on inactivated whole virus, recombinant
>virus-like particles or recombinant core-like particles all show
>promise, but require more research. If a commercial product of any of
>these is achieved, it will likely cost considerably more than a live
>attenuated vaccine.
>
>Live attenuated bluetongue vaccines have wide use in South Africa, and
>more limited use in USA and a few other countries. The vaccines are
>compromises between attenuation and immunogenicity and may have
>residual pathogenicity for some vaccinated sheep. The application of
>the vaccines has to be well managed. Colostral immunity in young sheep
>can interfere with the development of active immunity to the vaccine
>and breeding ewes and rams should be vaccinated before mating.
>
>Back
>
>
>Vaccines
>
>See Table
>
>
>Zoonoses and Food Safety
>
>Bluetongue is not a zoonosis.
>
>Back
>
>
>Taxonomic Tree
>
>Kingdom "Viruses" [01"VIR]
>
>Family Reoviridae [41REOV]
>
>Genus Orbivirus [51ORBI]
>
>
>Back
>
>
>Hosts Table
>
>See Table
>
>
>Vectors and Intermediate Hosts
>
>See Table
>
>
>Pathogen Characteristics
>
>Bluetongue virus is an icosahedral-shaped particle consisting of a
>segmented double-stranded RNA genome, encapsidated in a double-layered
>protein coat. Removal of the outer protein layer activates a
>viral-associated RNA polymerase which transcribes the ten genome
>segments into 10 mRNAs which are in turn translated into at least
>seven structural (VP1-VP7) and three non-structural (NS1-NS3) proteins
>(Huismans and Dijk, 1990). The virions have a diameter of 68-70 nm,
>comprising an outer capsid around a 54 nm core (Verwoerd and Erasmus,
>1994).
>
>The genome segments vary in size from 0.5 kDa to 2.7x10 3kDa, and the
>viral proteins range in size from 25,000 to 144,000 daltons. VP2 and
>VP5 form the outer capsid and the other five structural proteins are
>in the core. VP2 is primarily responsible for the induction of
>type-specific neutralizing antibodies and its variable sequence
>results in the 24 recognized serotypes of bluetongue virus (Verwoerd
>and Erasmus, 1994). The 24 serotypes are designated BLU 1- BLU 24.
>Variations in other proteins of the virus are responsible for the
>innumerable strains of the virus and for their varied biological
>properties. This genetic diversity of bluetongue virus is a
>consequence of both drift and reassortment of individual gene segments
>(OIE, 1998).
>
>Back
>
>
>References
>
>
>Abu Elzein EME, 1985. Bluetongue in camels: a serological survey of
>the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) in the Sudan. Revue
>d'‘levage et de M‘decine V‘t‘rinaire des Pays Tropicaux,
>38(4):438-442; 13 ref.
>
>Abu Elzein EME, Gameel AA, Al-Afaleq AI, Hassanein MM, 1992. Isolation
>of a virus serologically related to the bluetongue group from an
>outbreak of haemorrhagic disease among exotic deer in Saudi Arabia.
>Veterinary Record, 131(19):439-441; 20 ref.
>
>Afshar A, 1994. Bluetongue: laboratory diagnosis. Comparative
>Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 17(3/4):221-242; 182
>ref.
>
>Afshar A, Gard GP, 1992. Working Team report on diagnostics.
>Bluetongue, African horse sickness, and related orbiviruses:
>Proceedings of the Second International Symposium., 990-993.
>
>Akita GY, Ianconescu M, MacLachlan NJ, Osburn BI, Greene RT, 1994.
>Bluetongue disease in dogs associated with contaminated vaccine.
>Veterinary Record, 134(11):283; 5 ref.
>
>Anderson EC, Rowe LW, 1998. The prevalence of antibody to the viruses
>of bovine virus diarrhoea, bovine herpes virus 1, Rift Valley fever,
>ephemeral fever and bluetongue and to Leptospira sp. in free-ranging
>wildlife in Zimbabwe. Epidemiology and Infection, 121(2):441-449; 23
>ref.
>
>Apiwatnakorn B, Bura P, Pasavorakul O, 1996. Serological study for
>bluetongue in Thailand. Bluetongue disease in Southeast Asia and the
>Pacific: Proceedings of the First Southeast Asia and Pacific Regional
>Bluetongue Symposium, Greenlake Hotel, Kunming, P.R. China, 22-24
>August 1995., 20-22; 4 ref.
>
>Aruni AW, Chandran NDJ, Ramadass P, Prabhakar TC, Lalitha PS,
>Venkatesan RA, 1994. Comparative evaluation of AGPT and Dot ELISA for
>the detection of blue tongue virus (BTV) antigens in sheep blood
>samples. Indian Journal of Veterinary Research, 3(2):25-29; 9 ref.
>
>Ayoub H, Singh KV, 1970. Identification of bluetongue in UAR (Egypt).
>Bulletin of Epizootic Diseases of Africa, 18:123-136.
>
>Barr‘ N, Eramus BJ, Gautier A, R²me A, Valin R, 1985. Bluetongue, a
>new disease of sheep on Reunion (Indian Ocean). Revue d'‘levage et de
>M‘decine V‘t‘rinaire des Pays Tropicaux, 38(1):16-21; 10 ref.
>
>Barsoum GW, 1992. Bluetongue and African horse sickness situation in
>Egypt. Bluetongue, African horse sickness, and related orbiviruses:
>Proceedings of the Second International Symposium., 42-43.
>
>Barzilai E, Shimshony A, 1985. Bluetongue: virological and
>epidemiological observations in Israel. Bluetongue and related
>orbiviruses, 545-553; [Progress in Clinical and Biological Research
>volume 178]; 13 ref.
>
>Bi YunLong, Li ChunDi, Li ShiYin, Qing Bo, Zhong Nan, Hu JinFeng, Yang
>RuiLan, 1996. An epidemiological survey of bluetongue in Yunnan
>Province, China. Bluetongue disease in Southeast Asia and the Pacific:
>Proceedings of the First Southeast Asia and Pacific Regional
>Bluetongue Symposium, Greenlake Hotel, Kunming, P.R. China, 22-24
>August 1995., 51-56.
>
>Bida SA, Eid FIA, 1974. Blue tongue of sheep in Northern Nigeria.
>Journal of the Nigerian Veterinary Medical Association, 3(1):12-16.
>
>Borden EC, Shope RE, Murphy FA, 1971. Physicochemical and
>morphological relationships of some arthropod-borne viruses to
>bluetongue virus --a new taxonomic group. Physicochemical and
>serological studies. Journal of General Virology, 13:261-271.
>
>Braverman Y, Galun R, 1973. The occurrence of culicoides in Israel
>with reference to the incidence of bluetongue. Refuah veterinarith,
>30(3-4):121-127.
>
>Burgu I, Urman HK, Akca Y, Yonguc A, Mellor PS, Hamblin C, 1992.
>Serologic survey and vector surveillance for bluetongue in southern
>Turkey. Bluetongue, African horse sickness, and related orbiviruses:
>Proceedings of the Second International Symposium., 168-174; 7 ref.
>
>Burton RW, Littlejohns IR, 1988. The occurrence of antibody to
>bluetongue virus in New South Wales. I. Statewide surveys of cattle
>and sheep. II. Coastal region and age distribution surveys. Australian
>Journal of Biological Sciences, 41(4):563-570, 571-578; 16 and 8 ref.
>
>Butenko AM, 1996. Study of arbovirus circulation in Guinea.
>Meditsinskaya Parazitologiya i Parazitarnye Bolezni, No. 2:40-45; 7
>ref.
>
>Castro RS, Leite RC, Abreu JJ, Lage AP, Ferraz IB, Lobato ZIP,
>Balsamao SLE, 1992. Prevalence of antibodies to selected viruses in
>bovine embryo donors and recipients from Brazil, and its implications
>in international embryo trade. Tropical Animal Health and Production,
>24(3):173-176; 20 ref.
>
>Charton H, Prunaux O, Guignard A, 1991. Bluetongue in Reunion. Results
>of a serological survey. Revue de M‘decine V‘t‘rinaire,
>142(5):415-418; 7 ref.
>
>Chen LiBiao, Zhong PeiYi, Zhao GuoMing, 1996. A serological survey of
>bluetongue in cattle in Guangxi Province, China. Bluetongue disease in
>Southeast Asia and the Pacific: Proceedings of the First Southeast
>Asia and Pacific Regional Bluetongue Symposium, Greenlake Hotel,
>Kunming, P.R. China, 22-24 August 1995., 76-77; 1 ref.
>
>Clavijo A, Heckert RA, Dulac GC, Afshar A, 2000. Isolation and
>identification of bluetongue virus. Journal of Virological Methods,
>87:13-23.
>
>Cunha RG, Souza DMde, Teixeira AC, 1988. Prevalence of antibodies to
>bluetongue virus in the serum of goats and sheep in Rio de Janeiro
>State. Arquivos Fluminenses de Medicine Veterinària, 3(2):53-56; 23
>ref.
>
>Dafni I, 1966. Bluetongue in Israel in the years 1964 and 1965.
>Bulletin of the Office international des Epizooties, 66:319-327.
>
>Davies FG, Mungai JN, Pini A, 1992. A new bluetongue virus serotype
>isolated in Kenya. Veterinary Microbiology, 31(1):25-32; 6 ref.
>
>Davies FG, Walker AR, 1974. The distribution in Kenya of bluetongue
>virus and antibody, and the Culicoides vector. Journal of Hygiene,
>72(2):265-272.
>
>Della-Porta AJ, Sellers RF, Herniman KAJ et al., 1983. Serological
>studies of Australian and Papua New Guinean cattle and Australian
>sheep for the presence of antibodies against bluetongue group viruses.
>Veterinary Microbiology, 8:147-162.
>
>Dulac GC, Sterritt WG, Dubuc C, Afshar A, Myers DJ, Taylor EA,
>Jamieson BR, Martin MW, 1992. Incursions of orbiviruses in Canada and
>their serologic monitoring in the native animal population between
>1962 and 1991. Bluetongue, African horse sickness, and related
>orbiviruses: Proceedings of the Second International Symposium.,
>120-127; 19 ref.
>
>Ekue FN, Nfi AN, Tsangue P, Taylor WP, Gumm ID, 1985. Bluetongue in
>exotic sheep in Cameroon. Tropical Animal Health and Production,
>317(3):187-188; 2 ref.
>
>Elfatih M, Mohammed H, Taylor WP, 1987. Infection with bluetongue and
>related orbiviruses in the Sudan detected by the study of sentinel
>calf herds. Epidemiology and Infection, 99(2):533-545; 25 ref.
>
>Erasmus BJ, 1990. Bluetongue virus. Virus infections of ruminants.,
>227-237; 31 ref.
>
>Fayza AO, Abu-Elzein EME, Tag-Eldin MH, Hajer IE, 1990. Susceptibility
>of Sudanese sheep to a bluetongue virus isolated from apparently
>healthy cattle in the Sudan. Revue d'‘levage et de M‘decine
>V‘t‘rinaire des Pays Tropicaux, 43(3):313-316; 25 ref.
>
>Ferreira ML, Rosinha A, 1986. Preliminary analysis of data from
>"operation buffalo" (Syncerus caffer) in Mozambique. Reposit»rio de
>Trabalhos do Laborat»rio Nacional de InvestigaÎao Veterinària, 18:83,
>85-100; 32 ref.
>
>Formenty P, Domenech J, Lauginie F, Ouattara M, Diawara S, Raath JP,
>Grobler D, Leforban Y, Angba A, 1994. Epidemiological study of
>bluetongue in sheep, cattle and various wild animal species in the
>CÂte d'Ivoire. Revue Scientifique et Technique - Office International
>des ‘pizooties, 13(3):737-751; 12 ref.
>
>Gambles RM, 1949. Bluetongue of sheep in Cyprus. Journal of
>Comparative Pathology, 59:176-190.
>
>Gard GP, 1987. Studies of bluetongue virulence and pathogenesis in
>sheep carried out at Animal Virus Research Institute, Pirbright,
>England, 1986., iv + 58pp.; [Technical Bulletin No. 103, ISSN
>0158-2763].
>
>Gard GP, 1996. Bluetongue viruses in the Asian and southeast Asian
>region. Bluetongue disease in Southeast Asia and the Pacific:
>Proceedings of the First Southeast Asia and Pacific Regional
>Bluetongue Symposium, Greenlake Hotel, Kunming, P.R. China, 22-24
>August 1995., 86-89; 19 ref.
>
>Gibbs EPJ, Greiner EC, 1985. Serological observations on the
>epidemiology of bluetongue virus infections in the Caribbean and
>Florida. Bluetongue and related orbiviruses, 563-470; [Progress in
>Clinical and Biological Research volume 178]; 14 ref.
>
>Gibbs EPJ, Greiner EC, 1988. Bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic
>disease. The arboviruses: epidemiology and ecology. Volume II., 39-70;
>169 ref.
>
>Gibbs EPJ, Greiner EC, 1994. The epidemiology of bluetongue.
>Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases,
>17(3/4):207-220; 47 ref.
>
>Goossens B, Osaer S, Kora S, Chandler KJ, Petrie L, Thevasagayam JA,
>Woolhouse T, Anderson J, 1998. Abattoir survey of sheep and goats in
>The Gambia. Veterinary Record, 142(11):277-281; 27 ref.
>
>Goto Y, Yamakawa M, Miura Y, 1996. An outbreak of bluetongue in cattle
>in Japan. Bluetongue disease in Southeast Asia and the Pacific:
>Proceedings of the First Southeast Asia and Pacific Regional
>Bluetongue Symposium, Greenlake Hotel, Kunming, P.R. China, 22-24
>August 1995., 42.
>
>Guo ZhaiJun, Hao JuCai, Chen JianGuo, Li ZhiHua, Zhang KhaiLi, Hu
>YuLing, Li Gen, Pu Long, 1996. Investigation of bluetongue disease in
>the Bayannur Meng of Inner Mongolia. Bluetongue disease in Southeast
>Asia and the Pacific: Proceedings of the First Southeast Asia and
>Pacific Regional Bluetongue Symposium, Greenlake Hotel, Kunming, P.R.
>China, 22-24 August 1995., 80-83; 8 ref.
>
>Hafez SM, 1978. Serological survey of bluetongue in Iraq. Bulletin of
>the Office international des Epizooties, 89(1-2):13-22.
>
>Hafez SM, Ozawa Y, 1973. Serological survey of bluetongue in Egypt.
>Bulletin of Epizootic Diseases of Africa, 21(3):297-304.
>
>Hafez SM, Taylor WP, 1985. Serotypes of bluetongue virus present in
>Saudi Arabia. Bluetongue and related orbiviruses, 531-537; [2 maps;
>Progress in Clinical and Biological Research volume 178]; 12 ref.
>
>Haresnape JM, Taylor WP, Lungu SAM, 1988. The epidemiology of
>bluetongue in Malawi. Epidemiology and Infection, 100(3):493-499; 13
>ref.
>
>Hassan A, 1992a. Status of bluetongue in the Middle East and Asia.
>Bluetongue, African horse sickness, and related orbiviruses:
>Proceedings of the Second International Symposium., 38-41; 4 ref.
>
>Hassan A, 1992b. Epidemiology of bluetongue virus infection in
>Malaysia. Bluetongue, African horse sickness, and related orbiviruses:
>Proceedings of the Second International Symposium., 155-161; [11 ref].
>
>Hawkes RA, 1996. The global distribution of bluetongue. Bluetongue
>disease in Southeast Asia and the Pacific: Proceedings of the First
>Southeast Asia and Pacific Regional Bluetongue Symposium, Greenlake
>Hotel, Kunming, P.R. China, 22-24 August 1995., 6-14; 69 ref.
>
>Hilmy Zaki AH, 1965. Suspected bluetongue cases in UAR. Bulletin
>Office international des Epizooties, 64:667-670.
>
>Homan EJ, Gibbs EPJ, Walker JS, Walton TE, Yuill TM, Gonzàlez J,
>Barreto CH, Greiner EC, 1992. Central American and Caribbean regional
>bluetongue epidemiologic study: Antecedents and geographic review.
>Bluetongue, African horse sickness, and related orbiviruses:
>Proceedings of the Second International Symposium., 99-105; 34 ref.
>
>Howell PG, 1960. A preliminary antigenic classification of strains of
>bluetongue virus. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research,
>28(3):357-363.
>
>Howell PG, 1970. The antigenic classification and distribution of
>naturally occurring strains of bluetongue virus. Journal of the South
>African veterinary medicine Association, 41(3):215-223.
>
>Huang Xiu, Pu ShuYing, Er ChengJun, Yang ChengYu, Wei WanLian, Cheng
>XiengFu, Zhang ChongXin, Li XiaoCheng, Liu TianBin, 1996.
>Epidemiological investigations and isolation of bluetongue virus in
>Gansu Province, China. Bluetongue disease in Southeast Asia and the
>Pacific: Proceedings of the First Southeast Asia and Pacific Regional
>Bluetongue Symposium, Greenlake Hotel, Kunming, P.R. China, 22-24
>August 1995., 65-66; 2 ref.
>
>Huismans H, Dijk AAvan, 1990. Bluetongue virus structural components.
>Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology, 162:21-41; 101 ref.
>
>Hussein Hag A, Gallo C, Caracappa S, Vesco G, 1985. Serological survey
>for antibodies to abortion-producing agents in zebu in Somalia. Atti
>della Societö Italiana di Buiatria, 17:573-575; 4 ref.
>
>Hyera JMK, Lyaruu VH, 1995. Preliminary evidence of the occurrence of
>Blue-tongue (BT) virus infection in Tanzanian sheep and goats.
>Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 43(3):183-186; 18
>ref.
>
>Jain NC, Sharma R, Prasad G, 1986. Isolation of bluetongue virus from
>sheep in India. Veterinary Record, 119(1):17-18; 6 ref.
>
>Jain NC, Gupta Y, Prasad G, 1992. Bluetongue virus antibodies in
>buffaloes and cattle in Haryana state of India. Bluetongue, African
>horse sickness, and related orbiviruses: Proceedings of the Second
>International Symposium., 188-192; 10 ref.
>
>Jorgensen PH, Halliwell RW, Honhold N, 1989. Prevalence of serum
>antibodies to bluetongue virus in indigenous goats in Zimbabwe
>revealed by a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Tropical
>Animal Health and Production, 21(1):58.
>
>Kanhai GK, Silva Rda, 1981. A serological survey of bluetongue in
>Mozambique. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa,
>29(3):289-291.
>
>Konstantinov OK, 1990. Ticks of the family Ixodidae as arbovirus
>reservoirs in the Republic of Guinea. II. The arboviruses. Revue
>d'‘levage et de M‘decine V‘t‘rinaire des Pays Tropicaux, 43(1):15-22;
>13 ref.
>
>Koumbati M, Mangana O, Nomikou K, Mellor PS, Papadopoulos O, 1999.
>Duration of bluetongue viraemia and serological responses in
>experimentally infected European breeds of sheep and goats. Veterinary
>Microbiology, 64(4):277-285; 23 ref.
>
>Kukarni DD, Bannalikar AS, Karpe AG, Gujar MB, Kulkarni MN, 1992.
>Epidemiologic observations on bluetongue in sheep in the Marathwada
>region of Maharashtra state in India. Bluetongue, African horse
>sickness, and related orbiviruses: Proceedings of the Second
>International Symposium., 193-196; 5 ref.
>
>Lancelot R, Calvez D, Waller J, Kremer M, Sanite L, Lef‘vre PC, 1989.
>Epidemiological observations on bluetongue in French Guiana.
>‘pid‘miologie et Sant‘ Animale, No. 15:103-116; 13 ref.
>
>Lef²vre PC, Calvez D, 1986. Bluetongue in intertropical Africa:
>influence of ecological factors on the prevalence of infection. Revue
>d'‘levage et de M‘decine V‘t‘rinaire des Pays Tropicaux,
>39(3/4):263-268; 19 ref.
>
>Lefevre PC, Taylor WP, 1983. Epidemiological situation of bluetongue
>in Senegal. Revue d'‘levage et de M‘decine V‘t‘rinaire des Pays
>Tropicaux, 36(3):241-245; 8 ref.
>
>Lei HuaiMin, Xu JianMing, He ChongLi, Shao JiangLiang, Shi XiaYun,
>1996. The isolation and characterisation of bluetongue virus and its
>epidemiology in Shanxi Province, China. Bluetongue disease in
>Southeast Asia and the Pacific: Proceedings of the First Southeast
>Asia and Pacific Regional Bluetongue Symposium, Greenlake Hotel,
>Kunming, P.R. China, 22-24 August 1995., 72-75.
>
>MacLachlan NJ, 1994. The pathogenesis and immunology of bluetongue
>virus infection of ruminants. Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and
>Infectious Diseases, 17(3/4):197-206; 59 ref.
>
>Maiga S, Sarr J, 1992. Epidemiological survey of the main respiratory
>viruses of small ruminants in Mali. Revue d'‘levage et de M‘decine
>V‘t‘rinaire des Pays Tropicaux, 45(1):15-17; 10 ref.
>
>Mariner JC, Sama S, Mamini C, Baare K, Stem C, Yedloutschnig RJ, Mebus
>CA, Sollod AE, 1989. Serosurvey of Sahelian cattle for evidence of
>epizootic disease. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 7(3):163-171; 30
>ref.
>
>Mehrotra ML, 1992. Studies on bluetongue in India: distribution and
>isolation of viruses. Bluetongue, African horse sickness, and related
>orbiviruses: Proceedings of the Second International Symposium.,
>181-187; 15 ref.
>
>Mellor PS, 1990. The replication of bluetongue virus in Culicoides
>vectors. Bluetongue viruses., 143-161; [In Current Topics in
>Microbiology and Immunology, 162]; 101 ref.
>
>Mellor PS, Boorman J, Baylis M, 2000. Culicoides biting midges: their
>role as arbovirus vectors. Annual Review of Entomology, 45:307-340.
>
>Melo CB, Oliveira AM, Azevedo EO et al., 2000. Antibodies to
>bluetongue virus in cattle of Paraiba State, Brazil. Arquivo
>Brasileiro De Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia, 52(1):19-20.
>
>Mo ReGen, Ao FuLai, Si Qin, Zhao XinLi, 1996. Serological survey of
>bluetongue in sheep and cattle in Inner Mongolia. Bluetongue disease
>in Southeast Asia and the Pacific: Proceedings of the First Southeast
>Asia and Pacific Regional Bluetongue Symposium, Greenlake Hotel,
>Kunming, P.R. China, 22-24 August 1995., 78-79; 2 ref.
>
>Moore DL, Kemp GE, 1974. Bluetongue and related viruses in Ibadan,
>Nigeria: Serologic studies of domestic and wild animals. American
>Journal of Veterinary Research, 35(8):1115-1120.
>
>Muller MJ, Standfast HA, St George TD, Cybinski DH, 1982. Culicoides
>brevitarsis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) as a vector of arboviruses in
>Australia. In: St George TD, Kay BH, eds. Arbovirus Research in
>Australia. Proceedings of the Third Symposium. Brisbane, Australia:
>CSIRO-QIMR, 43-49.
>
>Murray PK, Eaton BT, 1996. Vaccines for bluetongue. Australian
>Veterinary Journal, 73(6):207-210; 33 ref.
>
>Mushi EZ, Diteko T, Wibberley G, Kupe D, 1992. Precipitating
>antibodies to bluetongue virus in Botswana. Bulletin of Animal Health
>and Production in Africa, 40(2):117; 2 ref.
>
>Mweene AS, Pandey GS, Sinyangwe P, Nambota A, Samui K, Kida H, 1996.
>Viral diseases of livestock in Zambia. Japanese Journal of Veterinary
>Research, 44(2):89-105; 77 ref.
>
>Nevill EM, Erasmus BJ, Venter GJ, 1992. A six-year survey of viruses
>associated with Culicoides biting midges throughout South Africa
>(Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Bluetongue, African horse sickness, and
>related orbiviruses: Proceedings of the Second International
>Symposium., 314-319; 5 ref.
>
>Obi TU, Taylor WP, Ojo MO, 1983. Prevalence of bluetongue virus
>precipitating antibodies in sheep and goats in Southern Nigeria.
>Tropical Veterinarian, 1(4):205-208; 9 ref.
>
>Office International des Epizooties, 1998. Supporting document for the
>OIE International Animal Health Code chapter 2.1.9 on bluetongue. OIE
>Ad hoc working group on bluetongue, September 1998.
>
>Office International des Epizooties, 1999. World Animal Health in
>1999. Paris, France: OIE.
>
>Papadopoulos O, 1992. Bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease in
>Europe and the European community. Bluetongue, African horse sickness,
>and related orbiviruses: Proceedings of the Second International
>Symposium., 34-37; 12 ref.
>
>Pearson JE, Gustafson GA, Shafer AL, Alstad AD, 1992. Distribution of
>bluetongue in the United States. Bluetongue, African horse sickness,
>and related orbiviruses: Proceedings of the Second International
>Symposium., 128-139; 25 ref.
>
>P‘rez BM, Siger Jde, Avila JP, Romàn R, Infante G, 1995. Prevalence of
>antibodies to the bluetongue virus in cattle herds in the county of La
>Canada de Urdaneta, Zulia State, Venezuela. Revista Cientifica,
>Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, Universidad del Zulia, 5(2):77-85;
>47 ref.
>
>Pillai CP, 1961. Suspected cases of bluetongue in sheep. The Sudan
>Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry. 2(1):47-50.
>
>Prasad G, Jain NC, Mahajan NK, Vasudevan B, 1987. Prevalence of
>bluetongue-precipitating antibodies in different domestic animals.
>Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, 57(6):522-524; 9 ref.
>
>Price DA, Hardy WT, 1954. Isolation of the bluetongue virus from Texas
>sheep - Culicoides shown to be a vector. Journal of the American
>Veterinary Medical Association, 124(925):255-258.
>
>Puana I, 1996. Bluetongue virus status in Papua New Guinea. Bluetongue
>disease in Southeast Asia and the Pacific: Proceedings of the First
>Southeast Asia and Pacific Regional Bluetongue Symposium, Greenlake
>Hotel, Kunming, P.R. China, 22-24 August 1995., 41.
>
>Qin QiYing, Tai ZhengGuo, Wang LiJin, Luo ZhengQi, Hu Jun, Lin
>HanLiang, 1996. Bluetongue epidemiological survey and virus isolation
>in Xinjiang, China. Bluetongue disease in Southeast Asia and the
>Pacific: Proceedings of the First Southeast Asia and Pacific Regional
>Bluetongue Symposium, Greenlake Hotel, Kunming, P.R. China, 22-24
>August 1995., 67-71; 2 ref.
>
>Roberts DH, 1990. Bluetongue: a review. State Veterinary Journal,
>44(124):66-80; 40 ref.
>
>Rosadio RH, Evermann JF, DeMartini JC, 1984. A preliminary serological
>survey of viral antibodies in Peruvian sheep. Veterinary Microbiology,
>10(1):91-96; 26 ref.
>
>Sellers RF, 1981. Bluetongue and related diseases. In: Gibbs EPJ ed.
>Virus Diseases of Food Animals. London, UK: Academic Press, 567-584.
>
>Sendow I, Young P, Ronohardjo P, 1986. Serological studies of
>bluetongue virus in Indonesia. Arbovirus research in Australia.
>Proceedings Fourth Symposium May 6-9, 1986, Brisbane, Australia,
>271-273; 10 ref.
>
>Sendow I, Daniels P, Soleha E, Hunt N, Ronohardjo P, 1991. Isolation
>of bluetongue viral serotypes 7 and 9 from healthy sentinel cattle in
>West Java, Indonesia. Australian Veterinary Journal, 68(12):405-406;
>10 ref.
>
>Sharifah SH, Ali MA, Gard GP, Polkinghorne IG, 1995. Isolation of
>multiple serotypes of bluetongue virus from sentinel livestock in
>Malaysia. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 27(1):37-42; 12 ref.
>
>Sharma SN, Oberoi MS, Sodhi SS, Baxi KK, 1981. Bluetongue virus
>precipitating antibodies in dairy animals in the Punjab. Tropical
>Animal Health and Production, 13(4):193.
>
>Shimshony A, Barzilai E, Savir D, Davidson M, 1988. Epidemiology and
>control of bluetongue disease in Israel. Revue Scientifique et
>Technique, Office International des ‘pizooties, 7(2):311-329; 26 ref.
>
>Silva JAda, Machado TMM, Modena CM, Viana FC, Moreira EC, Abreu VVde,
>1988. Frequency of foot and mouth disease, bluetongue and bovine
>oncovirus antibodies in goats under different production systems in
>Minas Gerais State. Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinària e
>Zootecnia, 40(6):393-403; 17 ref.
>
>Singer RS, MacLachlan NJ, Carpenter TE, 2001. Maximal predicted
>duration of viremia in bluetongue virus-infected cattle. Journal of
>Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 13:43-49.
>
>Soliman AM, Hafez SM, Ozawa Y, 1972. Recent epizootics of bluetongue
>in Egypt. Bulletin of Epizootic Diseases of Africa, 20:105-112.
>
>Sreenivasulu D, Rao MVS, Gard GP, 1999. Isolation of bluetongue virus
>serotype 2 from native sheep in India. Veterinary Record,
>144(16):452-453; 12 ref.
>
>Stanley MJ, 1990. Prevalence of bluetongue precipitating antibodies in
>domesticated animals in Yemen Arab Republic. Tropical Animal Health
>and Production, 22(3):163-164; 8 ref.
>
>Tamayo R, Schoebitz R, Alonso O, Wenzel J, 1985. First report of
>bluetongue antibody in Chile. Bluetongue and related orbiviruses,
>555-558; [Progress in Clinical and Biological Research volume 178].
>
>Taylor WP, Sellers RF, Gumm ID, Herniman KAJ, Owen L, 1985. Bluetongue
>epidemiology in the Middle East. Bluetongue and related orbiviruses,
>527-530; [4 maps; Progress in Clinical and Biological Research volume
>178]; 3 ref.
>
>Taylor WP, McCausland A, 1976. Studies with bluetongue virus in
>Nigeria. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 8:169-173.
>
>Thompson LH, Mo CL, Oviedo MT, Homan EJ, 1992. Prevalence and
>incidence of bluetongue viruses in the Caribbean basin: serologic and
>virologic findings. Bluetongue, African horse sickness, and related
>orbiviruses: Proceedings of the Second International Symposium.,
>106-113; 11 ref.
>
>Doyle KA, 1992. An overview and perspective on orbivirus disease
>prevalence and occurrence of vectors in Australia and Oceania.
>Bluetongue, African horse sickness, and related orbiviruses:
>Proceedings of the Second International Symposium., 44-57; 29 ref.
>
>Johnson BG, 1992. An overview and perspective on orbivirus disease
>prevalence and occurrence of vectors in North America. Bluetongue,
>African horse sickness, and related orbiviruses: Proceedings of the
>Second International Symposium., 58-61; 5 ref.
>
>Verwoerd DW, Erasmus BJ, 1994. Bluetongue. In: Coetzer JAW, Thomson
>GR, Tustin RC, eds. Infectious Diseases of Livestock with special
>reference to Southern Africa. Cape Town, South Africa: Oxford
>University Press, 443-459.
>
>Viegas de Abreu VL, 1983. Prevalence of reactions to the
>immunodiffusion test for bluetongue antibodies among cattle and
>buffaloes in northern Brazil. [Abstract of thesis]. Arquivo Brasileiro
>de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia, 35(5):759-760.
>
>Ward MP, Flanagan M, Baldock FC, 1995. Infection of cattle Queensland
>with bluetongue viruses: 1. prevalence of antibodies. Australian
>Veterinary Journal, 72(5):182-186; 30 ref.
>
>Weitzman GL, Stem EC, Gilfillan RS, Lindenmayer JM, 1991. Preliminary
>serological survey for bluetongue and toxoplasmosis in sheep in Niger.
>Tropical Animal Health and Production, 23(4):258; 2 ref.
>
>Zhang NianZu, Li ZhiHua, Zhang KhaiLi, Hu YuLing, Li Gen, Peng KeGao,
>Li HuaChun, Zhang FuQiang, Ben Jin, Li XinRong, Zhou FuZhong, Liu Gui,
>1996. Bluetongue history, serology and virus isolation in China.
>Bluetongue disease in Southeast Asia and the Pacific: Proceedings of
>the First Southeast Asia and Pacific Regional Bluetongue Symposium,
>Greenlake Hotel, Kunming, P.R. China, 22-24 August 1995., 43-50; 26
>ref.
>
>Zhou WeiHan, 1995. An epidemiological investigation of bluetongue in
>Anhui Province [China]. Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine,
>China, 27(1):3-5; 9 ref.
>
>Zhou WeiHan, 1996. An epidemiological study of bluetongue in Anhui
>Province, China. Bluetongue disease in Southeast Asia and the Pacific:
>Proceedings of the First Southeast Asia and Pacific Regional
>Bluetongue Symposium, Greenlake Hotel, Kunming, P.R. China, 22-24
>August 1995., 61-64.
>
>Zhu ChangGui, Li YaMin, Shao CuiLi, Xu ShiBai, Zheng TianRan, 1996.
>Epidemiological investigations and control of bluetongue disease in
>Jiangsu Province, China. Bluetongue disease in Southeast Asia and the
>Pacific: Proceedings of the First Southeast Asia and Pacific Regional
>Bluetongue Symposium, Greenlake Hotel, Kunming, P.R. China, 22-24
>August 1995., 57-60.
>
>Huismans H, Dijk AAvan, 1990. Bluetongue virus structural components.
>Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology, 162:21-41; 101 ref.
>
>Office International des Epizooties, 1998. Supporting document for the
>OIE International Animal Health Code chapter 2.1.9 on bluetongue. OIE
>Ad hoc working group on bluetongue, September 1998.
>
>Verwoerd DW, Erasmus BJ, 1994. Bluetongue. In: Coetzer JAW, Thomson
>GR, Tustin RC, eds. Infectious Diseases of Livestock with special
>reference to Southern Africa. Cape Town, South Africa: Oxford
>University Press, 443-459.
>
>
>


SHIVER ME TIMBERS
2007-09-16 16:34:47 EST
> Gloria <letsstandup2bullies@yahoo.co.uk> wrote:

> Glad I'm veggie.

And I'm glad that I am smarter than you and at least
know how to trim a post.

Gwyddno
2007-09-16 17:39:57 EST
On 16 Sep, 21:34, SHIVER ME TIMBERS <shiver@me_timbers.com> wrote:
> > Gloria <letsstandup2bull...@yahoo.co.uk> wrote:
> > Glad I'm veggie.
>
> And I'm glad that I am smarter than you and at least
> know how to trim a post.

Time to go veggie? Time to eat a veggie more like.

In fact, I'm starting a campaign to legalise the slaughter and
consumption of vegetarians. Anyone with me?


SHIVER ME TIMBERS
2007-09-16 18:15:01 EST
> Gwyddno <Ieithgi@googlemail.com> wrote:


> Time to go veggie? Time to eat a veggie more like.
>
> In fact, I'm starting a campaign to legalise the slaughter and
> consumption of vegetarians. Anyone with me?


The problem is that they might not have much flavour.

I wonder if you could flavour them up like Tofu.

@@^>
2007-09-19 05:54:50 EST
On Sun, 16 Sep 2007 14:39:57 -0700, Gwyddno <Ieithgi@googlemail.com>
wrote:

>On 16 Sep, 21:34, SHIVER ME TIMBERS <shiver@me_timbers.com> wrote:
>> > Gloria <letsstandup2bull...@yahoo.co.uk> wrote:
>> > Glad I'm veggie.
>>
>> And I'm glad that I am smarter than you and at least
>> know how to trim a post.
>
>Time to go veggie? Time to eat a veggie more like.
>
>In fact, I'm starting a campaign to legalise the slaughter and
>consumption of vegetarians. Anyone with me?

That would take balls. You don't have any.



--










Hansom <0>++<0>




Avoid the rush at the last judgement. Be converted now instead!


PRAYER FOR A NATION


When Pastor Joe Wright, of Central Christian Church, was asked
to open the new session of the Kansas Senate, everyone was expecting
the usual politically correct generalities.
But what they heard instead was this:

Heavenly Father, we come before You today to ask Your forgiveness
and seek your direction and guidance.
We know Your Word says,
‘Woe on those who call evil good,’ but that’s exactly what we have done.
We have lost our spiritual equilibrium and inverted our values.

We confess that:

We have ridiculed the absolute truth of Your Word and called it pluralism;

We have, worshipped other gods and called it multiculturalism;

We have endorsed perversion and called it an alternative lifestyle;

We have exploited the poor and called it the lottery;

We have neglected the needy and called it self-preservation;

We have killed our unborn and called it choice;

We have neglected to discipline our children and called it building self-esteem;

We have abused power and called it political savvy;

We have coveted our neighbour’s possessions and called it ambition;

We have polluted the air with profanity and pornography and called it freedom of expression;

We have ridiculed the time-honoured values of our forefathers and called it enlightenment.

Search us, 0 God, and know our hearts today; try us and see if there be some wicked way in us;
cleanse us from every sin and set us free. Guide and bless these men and women who have
been sent here by the people of Kansas, and who have been ordained by You, to govern this great state.

Grant them Your wisdom to rule and may their decisions direct us to the centre of Your will. I ask it in the name of Your Son, the Living Saviour, Jesus Christ. Amen.”


****************

Gary
2007-09-19 06:13:14 EST
On Sun, 16 Sep 2007 14:39:57 -0700, Gwyddno <Ieithgi@googlemail.com>
wrote:

>On 16 Sep, 21:34, SHIVER ME TIMBERS <shiver@me_timbers.com> wrote:
>> > Gloria <letsstandup2bull...@yahoo.co.uk> wrote:
>> > Glad I'm veggie.
>>
>> And I'm glad that I am smarter than you and at least
>> know how to trim a post.
>
>Time to go veggie? Time to eat a veggie more like.
>
>In fact, I'm starting a campaign to legalise the slaughter and
>consumption of vegetarians. Anyone with me?

That's not as stupid as you look!
If it will get you away from your chemical laden, unhealthy, global
impact, animal suffering, disease ridden factory farmed junk foods,
then I think it will do you a world of good compared to your current
diet.

Good, nutritious, clean and healthy food, go for it.



--





















































































blanks

--
Posted via a free Usenet account from http://www.teranews.com


Gwyddno
2007-09-20 20:52:24 EST
On 19 Sep, 11:13, Gary <g...@nospam.com> wrote:
> On Sun, 16 Sep 2007 14:39:57 -0700, Gwyddno <Ieit...@googlemail.com>
> wrote:
>
> >In fact, I'm starting a campaign to legalise the slaughter and
> >consumption of vegetarians. Anyone with me?
>
> That's not as stupid as you look!
> If it will get you away from your chemical laden, unhealthy, global
> impact, animal suffering, disease ridden factory farmed junk foods,
> then I think it will do you a world of good compared to your current
> diet.
>

Actually most of the meat I eat comes from either our own fields or
various neighbours', and it's impossible to describe how much better
it tastes for that. I eat next to no poultry unless I've raised it
myself or seen where and how it was raised and can see that it was
properly free ranging and being fed on grain, and we raise our own
pork. We don't eat lamb, it's too tasteless but we do buy whole
wethers (yearlings or two-year olds) from the butcher or from the
farm.

If more of us were prepared to deal with the reality of meat and to
buy direct from the farmers or from local butchers, British
agriculture would be in a much healthier condition than it is now and,
who know, maybe farmers would actually get a living income for their
efforts.

G


@@^>
2007-09-21 03:39:39 EST
On Thu, 20 Sep 2007 17:52:24 -0700, Gwyddno <Ieithgi@googlemail.com>
wrote:

>On 19 Sep, 11:13, Gary <g...@nospam.com> wrote:
>> On Sun, 16 Sep 2007 14:39:57 -0700, Gwyddno <Ieit...@googlemail.com>
>> wrote:
>>
>> >In fact, I'm starting a campaign to legalise the slaughter and
>> >consumption of vegetarians. Anyone with me?
>>
>> That's not as stupid as you look!
>> If it will get you away from your chemical laden, unhealthy, global
>> impact, animal suffering, disease ridden factory farmed junk foods,
>> then I think it will do you a world of good compared to your current
>> diet.
>>
>
>If more of us were prepared to deal with the reality of meat and to
>buy direct from the farmers or from local butchers, British
>agriculture would be in a much healthier condition than it is now and,
>who know, maybe farmers would actually get a living income for their
>efforts.

The arable/non livestock farmers do, and the future is looking rosy
for them. Only problem there is it's hard work, which scares many
farmers used to state handouts and money for old rope.

The trouble is many people in Britain buy a few head, dump them in a
shed or field for a few months, with very little attention, and call
that farming! It isn't. It's the very thing that allows disease to
thrive as it is in the meat industry. Go veggie.

If you want to earn decent pay, you have to do a decent days work. No
shortcuts.






--










Hansom <0>++<0>




Avoid the rush at the last judgement. Be converted now instead!


PRAYER FOR A NATION


When Pastor Joe Wright, of Central Christian Church, was asked
to open the new session of the Kansas Senate, everyone was expecting
the usual politically correct generalities.
But what they heard instead was this:

Heavenly Father, we come before You today to ask Your forgiveness
and seek your direction and guidance.
We know Your Word says,
‘Woe on those who call evil good,’ but that’s exactly what we have done.
We have lost our spiritual equilibrium and inverted our values.

We confess that:

We have ridiculed the absolute truth of Your Word and called it pluralism;

We have, worshipped other gods and called it multiculturalism;

We have endorsed perversion and called it an alternative lifestyle;

We have exploited the poor and called it the lottery;

We have neglected the needy and called it self-preservation;

We have killed our unborn and called it choice;

We have neglected to discipline our children and called it building self-esteem;

We have abused power and called it political savvy;

We have coveted our neighbour’s possessions and called it ambition;

We have polluted the air with profanity and pornography and called it freedom of expression;

We have ridiculed the time-honoured values of our forefathers and called it enlightenment.

Search us, 0 God, and know our hearts today; try us and see if there be some wicked way in us;
cleanse us from every sin and set us free. Guide and bless these men and women who have
been sent here by the people of Kansas, and who have been ordained by You, to govern this great state.

Grant them Your wisdom to rule and may their decisions direct us to the centre of Your will. I ask it in the name of Your Son, the Living Saviour, Jesus Christ. Amen.”


****************
Page: 1   (First | Last)


2020 - UsenetArchives.com | Contact Us | Privacy | Stats | Site Search
Become our Patron