Research Discussion: What Is The Smallest Thing In The Universe ??

What Is The Smallest Thing In The Universe ??
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Hägar
2012-09-17 15:35:54 EST
By Clara Moskowitz.

The answer to the enduring question of the smallest thing in the universe
has evolved along with humanity. People once thought grains of sand were the
building blocks of what we see around us. Then the atom was discovered, and
it was thought indivisible, until it was split to reveal protons, neutrons
and electrons inside. These too, seemed like fundamental particles, before
scientists discovered that protons and neutrons are made of three quarks
each.

"This time we haven't been able to see any evidence at all that there's
anything inside quarks," said physicist Andy Parker. "Have we reached the
most fundamental layer of matter?"

And even if quarks and electrons are indivisible, Parker said, scientists
don't know if they are the smallest bits of matter in existence, or if the
universe contains objects that are even more minute. [Graphic: Nature's
Tiniest Particles]

Parker, a professor of high-energy physics at England's Cambridge
University, recently hosted a television special on the U.K.'s BBC Two
channel called "Horizon: How Small is the Universe?"

Strings or points?

In experiments, teensy, tiny particles like quarks and electrons seem to act
like single points of matter with no spatial distribution. But point-like
objects complicate the laws of physics. Because you can get infinitely close
to a point, the forces acting on it can become infinitely large, and
scientists hate infinities.

An idea called superstring theory could solve this issue. The theory posits
that all particles, instead of being point-like, are actually little loops
of string. Nothing can get infinitely close to a loop of string, because it
will always be slightly closer to one part than another. That "loophole"
appears to solve some of these problems of infinities, making the idea
appealing to physicists. Yet scientists still have no experimental evidence
that string theory is correct.

[Related: Warp drive may be more feasible than thought, scientists say]

Another way of solving the point problem is to say that space itself isn't
continuous and smooth, but is actually made of discrete pixels, or grains,
sometimes referred to as space-time foam. In that case, two particles
wouldn't be able to come infinitely close to each other because they would
always have to be separated by the minimum size of a grain of space.

A singularity

Another contender for the title of smallest thing in the universe is the
singularity at the center of a black hole. Black holes are formed when
matter is condensed in a small enough space that gravity takes over, causing
the matter to pull inward and inward, ultimately condensing into a single
point of infinite density. At least, according to the current laws of
physics.

But most experts don't think black holes are really infinitely dense. They
think this infinity is the product of an inherent conflict between two
reigning theories - general relativity and quantum mechanics - and that when
a theory of quantum gravity can be formulated, the true nature of black
holes will be revealed.

[Related: NASA postpones final ferry flight of Endeavour]

"My guess is that [black hole singularities] are quite a lot smaller than a
quark, but I don't believe they're of infinite density," Parker told
LiveScience. "Most likely they are maybe a million million times or even
more than that smaller than the distances we've seen so far."

That would make singularities roughly the size of superstrings, if they
exist.

The Planck length

Superstrings, singularities, and even grains of the universe could all turn
out to be about the size of the "Planck length." [Tiny Grandeur: Stunning
Photos of the Very Small]

A Planck length is 1.6 x 10^-35 meters (the number 16 preceded by 34 zeroes
and a decimal point) - an incomprehensibly small scale that is implicated in
various aspects of physics.

The Planck length is far and away too small for any instrument to measure,
but beyond that, it is thought to represent the theoretical limit of the
shortest measureable length. According to the uncertainty principle, no
instrument should ever be able to measure anything smaller, because at that
range, the universe is probabilistic and indeterminate.

This scale is also thought to be the demarcating line between general
relativity and quantum mechanics.

[Related: What NASA's 'Mohawk guy' means for the future of space
exploration]

"It corresponds to the distance where the gravitational field is so strong
that it can start to do things like make black holes out of the energy of
the field," Parker said. "At the Planck length we expect quantum gravity
takes over."

Perhaps all of the universe's smallest things are roughly the size of the
Planck length.




G=EMC^2
2012-09-17 17:28:36 EST
On Sep 17, 3:35 pm, "Hägar" <hs...@yahoo.com> wrote:
> By Clara Moskowitz.
>
> The answer to the enduring question of the smallest thing in the universe
> has evolved along with humanity. People once thought grains of sand were the
> building blocks of what we see around us. Then the atom was discovered, and
> it was thought indivisible, until it was split to reveal protons, neutrons
> and electrons inside. These too, seemed like fundamental particles, before
> scientists discovered that protons and neutrons are made of three quarks
> each.
>
> "This time we haven't been able to see any evidence at all that there's
> anything inside quarks," said physicist Andy Parker. "Have we reached the
> most fundamental layer of matter?"
>
> And even if quarks and electrons are indivisible, Parker said, scientists
> don't know if they are the smallest bits of matter in existence, or if the
> universe contains objects that are even more minute. [Graphic: Nature's
> Tiniest Particles]
>
> Parker, a professor of high-energy physics at England's Cambridge
> University, recently hosted a television special on the U.K.'s BBC Two
> channel called "Horizon: How Small is the Universe?"
>
> Strings or points?
>
> In experiments, teensy, tiny particles like quarks and electrons seem to act
> like single points of matter with no spatial distribution. But point-like
> objects complicate the laws of physics. Because you can get infinitely close
> to a point, the forces acting on it can become infinitely large, and
> scientists hate infinities.
>
> An idea called superstring theory could solve this issue. The theory posits
> that all particles, instead of being point-like, are actually little loops
> of string. Nothing can get infinitely close to a loop of string, because it
> will always be slightly closer to one part than another. That "loophole"
> appears to solve some of these problems of infinities, making the idea
> appealing to physicists. Yet scientists still have no experimental evidence
> that string theory is correct.
>
> [Related: Warp drive may be more feasible than thought, scientists say]
>
> Another way of solving the point problem is to say that space itself isn't
> continuous and smooth, but is actually made of discrete pixels, or grains,
> sometimes referred to as space-time foam. In that case, two particles
> wouldn't be able to come infinitely close to each other because they would
> always have to be separated by the minimum size of a grain of space.
>
> A singularity
>
> Another contender for the title of smallest thing in the universe is the
> singularity at the center of a black hole. Black holes are formed when
> matter is condensed in a small enough space that gravity takes over, causing
> the matter to pull inward and inward, ultimately condensing into a single
> point of infinite density. At least, according to the current laws of
> physics.
>
> But most experts don't think black holes are really infinitely dense. They
> think this infinity is the product of an inherent conflict between two
> reigning theories - general relativity and quantum mechanics - and that when
> a theory of quantum gravity can be formulated, the true nature of black
> holes will be revealed.
>
> [Related: NASA postpones final ferry flight of Endeavour]
>
> "My guess is that [black hole singularities] are quite a lot smaller than a
> quark, but I don't believe they're of infinite density," Parker told
> LiveScience. "Most likely they are maybe a million million times or even
> more than that smaller than the distances we've seen so far."
>
> That would make singularities roughly the size of superstrings, if they
> exist.
>
> The Planck length
>
> Superstrings, singularities, and even grains of the universe could all turn
> out to be about the size of the "Planck length." [Tiny Grandeur: Stunning
> Photos of the Very Small]
>
> A Planck length is 1.6 x 10^-35 meters (the number 16 preceded by 34 zeroes
> and a decimal point) - an incomprehensibly small scale that is implicated in
> various aspects of physics.
>
> The Planck length is far and away too small for any instrument to measure,
> but beyond that, it is thought to represent the theoretical limit of the
> shortest measureable length. According to the uncertainty principle, no
> instrument should ever be able to measure anything smaller, because at that
> range, the universe is probabilistic and indeterminate.
>
> This scale is also thought to be the demarcating line between general
> relativity and quantum mechanics.
>
> [Related: What NASA's 'Mohawk guy' means for the future of space
> exploration]
>
> "It corresponds to the distance where the gravitational field is so strong
> that it can start to do things like make black holes out of the energy of
> the field," Parker said. "At the Planck length we expect quantum gravity
> takes over."
>
> Perhaps all of the universe's smallest things are roughly the size of the
> Planck length.

I go with the single neutrino Quantum gravity is the strongest force
(Read Schwarz 1972 papers) TreBet

Notroll2012
2012-09-17 20:36:05 EST


"Hägar" wrote in message
news:aomdnaYjCuwH5srNnZ2dnUVZ_umdnZ2d@giganews.com...

I'm guessing it's your dick.


Notroll2012
2012-09-17 20:37:02 EST


"Hägar" wrote in message
news:aomdnaYjCuwH5srNnZ2dnUVZ_umdnZ2d@giganews.com...

I'm guessing it's your dick.


Hägar
2012-09-17 23:06:06 EST

"G=EMC^2" <herbertglazier0@gmail.com> wrote in message
news:077dbf4d-5a60-465f-bc28-c333044e556a@i14g2000yqe.googlegroups.com...
On Sep 17, 3:35 pm, "H\ufffdgar" <hs...@yahoo.com> wrote:
> By Clara Moskowitz.

< snipped to conserve virtual paper >

I go with the single neutrino Quantum gravity is the strongest force
(Read Schwarz 1972 papers) TreBet


*** Sorry BirdBrain ... I forgot that you know everything.



David Staup
2012-09-18 09:08:58 EST

"Notroll2012" <notroll2012@charter.net> wrote in message
news:OmP5s.1575$Zb2.1455@newsfe13.iad...
>
>
> "H\ufffdgar" wrote in message
> news:aomdnaYjCuwH5srNnZ2dnUVZ_umdnZ2d@giganews.com...
>
> I'm guessing it's your dick.


fantisizing again ....faggot



G=EMC^2
2012-09-18 10:09:00 EST
On Sep 17, 11:06 pm, "Hägar" <hs...@yahoo.com> wrote:
> "G=EMC^2" <herbertglazi...@gmail.com> wrote in message
>
> news:077dbf4d-5a60-465f-bc28-c333044e556a@i14g2000yqe.googlegroups.com...
> On Sep 17, 3:35 pm, "Hägar" <hs...@yahoo.com> wrote:
>
> > By Clara Moskowitz.
>
> < snipped to conserve virtual paper >
>
> I go with the single neutrino  Quantum gravity is the strongest force
> (Read  Schwarz 1972 papers)   TreBet
>
> *** Sorry BirdBrain ... I forgot that you know everything.

Better to think than say your sorry. Keep in mind that the
neutrino is only about one ten millionth that of the electron.WOW
TeBet

Notroll2012
2012-09-18 11:55:31 EST


"David Staup" wrote in message news:k39rpb$me8$1@dont-email.me...


"Notroll2012" <notroll2012@charter.net> wrote in message
news:OmP5s.1575$Zb2.1455@newsfe13.iad...
>
>
> "Hägar" wrote in message
> news:aomdnaYjCuwH5srNnZ2dnUVZ_umdnZ2d@giganews.com...
>
> I'm guessing it's your dick.


fantisizing again ....faggot

************
You and your butt buddy Hagar are such total wastes of skin. Crackers.


David Staup
2012-09-18 13:02:13 EST

"Notroll2012" <notroll2012@charter.net> wrote in message
news:SP06s.6076$9_5.2707@newsfe06.iad...
>
>
> "David Staup" wrote in message news:k39rpb$me8$1@dont-email.me...
>
>
> "Notroll2012" <notroll2012@charter.net> wrote in message
> news:OmP5s.1575$Zb2.1455@newsfe13.iad...
>>
>>
>> "H\ufffdgar" wrote in message
>> news:aomdnaYjCuwH5srNnZ2dnUVZ_umdnZ2d@giganews.com...
>>
>> I'm guessing it's your dick.
>
>
> fantisizing again ....faggot
>
> ************
> You and your butt buddy Hagar are such total wastes of skin. Crackers.
>

snicker...

now you're projecting again..... faggot



Sir Gilligan Horry
2012-09-18 15:59:42 EST
On Mon, 17 Sep 2012 12:35:54 -0700, "Hägar" <hsahm@yahoo.com> wrote:

>What is the smallest thing in the Universe ??

Q: What is the smallest thing in the Universe ??


A: The brains of the idiot Extraterrestrials
that have been bad to Humans.



https://groups.google.com/forum/?fromgroups#!topic/alt.alien.research/l8p0J_3CXEQ










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